Electric buses can improve the environmental performance of public transport. Yet, introducing electric buses brings novel challenges, such as requirements for operational changes, new forms of institutional collaboration, increased investment costs and technological concerns. This paper investigates these challenges and strategies for managing them by comparing experiences of electric bus implementation in English and Swedish cities. The comparative approach enabled us to understand the influence of governance context, organisational practices and relations between stakeholders. The comparison shows that experiences by involved stakeholders are highly context dependant. Financial and regulatory support from the national government, along with passenger demand and route characteristics had significant influence on the implementation. However, the relationship between stakeholders involved and the division of responsibility emerged as central factors to overcome challenges – the most important being the development of functioning collaboration between the stakeholders.