K2 publishes reports of various kinds, mostly in Swedish. Filter "Articles" for English.

Vetenskapliga artiklar

Networked authority and regionalised governance: Public transport, a hierarchy of documents and the anti-hierarchy of authorship

Alexander Paulsson, Karolina Isaksson
This paper is concerned with the authority of written documents and how these artefacts work as governance devices. Networked authority is introduced as a concept to elucidate how documents accumulate formal power in a collaborative process, where several formally independent but informally interdependent organisations together point out the direction of regional public transport planning in the form of one strategic document. Drawing upon recent research on bureaucracy, authority and documents, the paper empirically explores these connections in the context of public transport in Stockholm, Sweden. Based on this case study, authority was found to be accomplished as the written document reproduced an existing hierarchy of documents, through an anti-hierarchical process where the newly formed Regional Public Transport Authority involved several formally independent but informally interdependent organisations, and by lacking a sole author. These three features are crucial for understanding how a collaborative process erodes individuality and personal responsibility, while producing anonymous, networked authority. These results are discussed in relationship to Foucault’s notion of authorship, the author-function, which is derived from legal–institutional networks, much like networked authority. Understanding how networked authority is accomplished through a hierarchy of documents and an anti-hierarchy of authorship contributes with new knowledge on documents and how these work as governance devices in regional governance.

Laddsträcka i Lund - En studie av busslinje i körsimulator

Arne Nåbo, Conny Börjesson, Laban Källgren, Joakim Nyman, Christina Stave, VTI notat 8-2018
År 2018 träder klimatlagen i kraft. Till år 2030 ska klimatpåverkan i transportsektorn ha minskat med 70 procent jämfört med år 2010 och år 2045 ska Sveriges klimatpåverkan vara netto noll. Det innebär en fundamental omställning av energiförsörjningen av vägtransporter och fordonsflottan. För bussar i stadstrafik ser man gärna en elektrifiering då elbussar både är avgasfria och tysta, vilket ger en mindre miljöpåverkan på gaturummet och det då finns möjlighet att även skapa attraktiva busslinjer. För att exemplifiera hur en elektrifiering av buss kan göras gjordes en studie i körsimulator där en möjlig elbusslinje i Lund som använder elväg studerades. Elektrifieringens mål var att nå en hög användarvänlighet och uppfylla framtidens krav på miljö- och energianpassning. Med hjälp av olika informationskällor om elbussar, elvägsteknik och Lunds stadsmiljö skapades virtuella modeller av dessa.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

What’s mode got to do with it? Exploring the links between public transport and car access and opportunities for everyday activities among older people

Jean Ryan, K2, Lund University & Anders Wretstrand, Lund University. January 2019
The paper "What’s mode got to do with it? Exploring the links between public transport and car access and opportunities for everyday activities among older people" by K2 researcher Jean Ryan explores the links between modal options and opportunities to participate in everyday activities among people aged 65–79 and living in Sweden’s large metropolitan regions, Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö. This incorporated a specific focus on those considered at a greater risk of transport-related social exclusion. Read the article here:
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Outcomes from new contracts with “strong” incentives for increasing ridership in bus transport in Stockholm

Roger Pyddoke, K2, VTI & Hanna Lindgren, Transportstyrelsen. Research in Transportation Economics Volume 69, September 2018, Pages 197-206
The Swedish Public Transport Association has adopted recommendations on incentives for increased ridership in tendered contracts, though there is little evidence on how public transport contracts should be designed to reach this goal. This study begins amassing the needed evidence by analyzing the performance of four Stockholm Region bus contracts spanning seven years, examining the new E20 contracts intended to increase ridership, customer satisfaction, and efficiency. These contracts employ 100 percent of payments to operators depending on the number of boarding and paying passengers. Using mostly monthly data, outcomes in E20-contracts in four areas (formerly governed by gross cost contracts) over three years are compared with outcomes in the years before the E20 contracts were implemented, and with two gross contracts running parallel to the E20 contract. Compared with gross cost operators in comparison areas, E20 operators performed better in terms of costs, customer satisfaction (initially worse but then better), punctuality, and canceled departures, but worse in number of departures and no better in number of passengers. Read the article here:
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Evaluation of cost drivers within public bus transports in Sweden

Helene Lidestam K2, Carolina Camén, Björn Lidestam. Research in Transportation Economics Volume 69, September 2018, Pages 157-164
The supply of public transport in Sweden has been continuously increasing and as a consequence thereof, the cost for bus traffic has also increased. However, many indicators show that costs for public transports in Sweden in recent years have increased more than supply. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to test and evaluate the importance of the nine previously identified cost drivers (Camén & Lidestam, 2016) of public bus transports in Sweden. A mixed-method design, which included both focus groups and a questionnaire, was used. The questionnaire, with quantitative rating scales, was sent to representatives from the bus operators and from the Public Transport Authorities (PTAs). In the focus groups, industry associations, consultants, and politicians also participated. The results reveal what the dominating cost factors are, as well as the factors considered to be the most important, according to actors within the Swedish bus transport sector. The most important cost driver identified is peak traffic and the costs of its consequences. Read the article here:
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Influence of public bus transport organisation on the introduction of renewable fuel

Malin Aldenius, K2, Lund University Faculty of Engineering. Research in Transportation Economics Volume 69, September 2018, Pages 106-115
The need to decrease emissions from the transport sector is getting urgent and public transport can play an important role in the transition to low emission fuels. To a large extent, public transport in Europe is provided by regional authorities who controls the traffic to a varying degree, from complete public monopoly to competitive tendering. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to analyse how the organisation of the public bus transport market influences the introduction of renewable fuels. The focus is on understanding what the motivation is for the use of different organisational forms and what challenges and opportunities the authorities in a region encounter during the introduction of renewable fuels. Interviews with authorities in ten Swedish public transport regions show that when functional requirements are used in competitive tendering it will exclusively result in the cheapest renewable fuel available. Thus, if new fuels or technologies should be able to enter the market, either it will be necessary for regional authorities to take more control using specific requirements or publicly management, or the national government must introduce policy instruments that enable new renewable fuels to become competitive on the market. Read the article here:

Samproduktion i praktik och teori

PM om samproduktion inom K2
Denna rapport har arbetats fram på uppdrag av K2s ledningsgrupp för att få en mer systematiserad förståelse för K2s ambition att bedriva kunskapsutveckling och forskning i samproduktion med branschen. Uppdraget har genomförts av docent Stig Westerdahl och docent Christina Lindkvist Scholten, båda verksamma vid Malmö universitet och aktiva forskare vid K2. Författarna har haft fria händer att tolka och genomföra uppdraget.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Justifying Mega-Projects. An Analysis of the Swedish High-Speed Rail Project

Erik Ronnle, Lund studies in Economics and Management. Lund 2019.
Mega-projects are a growing phenomenon worldwide. More and more projects are started and they grow ever bigger in size. At the same time, there is overwhelming evidence that mega-projects tend to run late, overrun in terms of costs and fail to deliver the expected benefits. Paradoxically, more and more money is invested in projects that fail to deliver on their promises. This dissertation analyses how mega-projects are justified through a case study of the Swedish highspeed rail project and the National Negotiation on Housing and Infrastructure (Sverigeförhandlingen). The dissertation finds that the Swedish high-speed rail project is being justified based on a combination of strategies: widening the scope, producing encouraging numbers, creating and mobilising stakeholders, and arguing using a policy narrative. It shows how the project leadership skilfully bypasses criticism from cost-benefit analysis and succeeds to gather support for the project despite the numbers.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Exploring waiting times in public transport through a semi-automated dedicated smartphone app survey

Ulrik Berggren, Carl Johnsson, HelenaSvensson, Anders Wretstranda, Travel Behaviour and Society Volume 15, April 2019, Pages 1-14
Highlights • Dedicated smartphone app survey gave important insights into PT travel behaviour. • Trip lengths, frequencies and transfers comparable to traditional travel survey. • Trip purpose, scheduled headway, trip duration and access mode strongest determinants for first waiting time. • Passengers adapted first waiting times to schedule rather than actual (realised) headways.

Kollektivtrafik i Malmö - Målbilder och stadsutveckling

Denna rapport ingår i forsknings- och utvecklingsprojektet ”Kollektivtrafikens bidrag till samhällsutveckling”. Storstadsregionerna utgör de platser där kollektivtrafiken fungerar som bäst, samtidigt som det är i storstadsregionerna som mål ställs mot varandra; konflikter uppstår mellan prioriteringar med avseende på olika befolkningsgrupper, med avseende på ekonomiska kontra miljömässiga mål och med avseende på naturresurser kontra förtätning av den byggda miljön. Storstadsregionerna utgör en intressant miljö för att utforska hur kollektivtrafiken värderas och planeras eftersom det är i dessa regioner de mest komplexa systemen och de nyaste satsningarna finns. Baserat på en intervjustudie i Malmö stad, är syftet med rapporten att analysera hur planerare förstår och värderar kollektivtrafikens bidrag till stadsutveckling.

Designing ridership incentives

Kristine Wika Haraldsen and Bård Norheim, 2018
This study is the second part of the larger project Incentives and Evaluation for Improved Public Transport. The study has been conducted in cooperation with VTI with funding from K2, Sweden's national centre for research and education on public transport. Analyses are conducted by Kristine Wika Haraldsen and Bård Norheim. Andreas Vigren has provided data and contract descriptions and, together with Roger Pyddoke, Karin Brundell-Freij and Harald Høyem, contributed useful comments.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

How to create functioning collaboration in theory and in practice – practical experiences of collaboration when planning public transport systems

Fredrik Pettersson & Robert Hrelja, International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, published online 11 Oct 2018.
The creation of an efficient public transport system increasingly requires collaboration between independent organizations. Institutional reforms in Europe have created governance situations where collaboration between organizations is a critical issue, and examples include the integration of transport and land-use planning and the planning of large public transport projects. The organizational context of public transport, with several formal, discrete organizations that need to collaborate, raises questions about how functioning collaborations can be accomplished. This paper examines how to create functioning collaboration between organizations in the public transport sector. We depart from a theory of collaboration as a stepwise trust-building process, and we present results from a comparative case study of collaboration in two Swedish public transport projects. The results show some of the prerequisites that must be in place in order for the collaboration to work, but also the boundaries of what collaborative approaches can bring about. Conditions such as honest, open, and inclusive dialog between stakeholders and resources in the form of finance, knowledge, mandate, and leadership are important. While there is no guarantee that this will lead to differences in interests being resolved, the results indicate that it improves the chances of finding compromises that all of the involved stakeholders can accept, especially if favorable conditions for collaboration are established at an early stage of the planning process. Building on these findings, we suggest some practical recommendations for improving collaboration in future public transport projects. These practical recommendations are aimed at improving the handling of unavoidable conflicts in collaboration in a constructive way.

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