K2 publishes reports of various kinds, mostly in Swedish. Filter "Articles" for English.


Designing ridership incentives

Kristine Wika Haraldsen and Bård Norheim, 2018
This study is the second part of the larger project Incentives and Evaluation for Improved Public Transport. The study has been conducted in cooperation with VTI with funding from K2, Sweden's national centre for research and education on public transport. Analyses are conducted by Kristine Wika Haraldsen and Bård Norheim. Andreas Vigren has provided data and contract descriptions and, together with Roger Pyddoke, Karin Brundell-Freij and Harald Høyem, contributed useful comments.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

How to create functioning collaboration in theory and in practice – practical experiences of collaboration when planning public transport systems

Fredrik Pettersson & Robert Hrelja, International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, published online 11 Oct 2018.
The creation of an efficient public transport system increasingly requires collaboration between independent organizations. Institutional reforms in Europe have created governance situations where collaboration between organizations is a critical issue, and examples include the integration of transport and land-use planning and the planning of large public transport projects. The organizational context of public transport, with several formal, discrete organizations that need to collaborate, raises questions about how functioning collaborations can be accomplished. This paper examines how to create functioning collaboration between organizations in the public transport sector. We depart from a theory of collaboration as a stepwise trust-building process, and we present results from a comparative case study of collaboration in two Swedish public transport projects. The results show some of the prerequisites that must be in place in order for the collaboration to work, but also the boundaries of what collaborative approaches can bring about. Conditions such as honest, open, and inclusive dialog between stakeholders and resources in the form of finance, knowledge, mandate, and leadership are important. While there is no guarantee that this will lead to differences in interests being resolved, the results indicate that it improves the chances of finding compromises that all of the involved stakeholders can accept, especially if favorable conditions for collaboration are established at an early stage of the planning process. Building on these findings, we suggest some practical recommendations for improving collaboration in future public transport projects. These practical recommendations are aimed at improving the handling of unavoidable conflicts in collaboration in a constructive way.

Ny kunskap om kollektivtrafik

Bengt Holmberg, John Hultén, K2 Outreach 2018:4. Lund 2018.
I den här rapporten beskrivs, på ett övergripande sätt, forskningsresultat som producerats inom K2 under perioden 2015 till och med sommaren 2018. Rapporten fokuserar på kunskap som bedöms vara särskilt relevant för kollektivtrafikens aktörer.

Mål och åtgärder för minskad biltrafik i svenska kommuner

Robert Hrelja. K2 Outreach 2018:3. Lund 2018.
Denna rapport är ett resultat från forskningsprojektet Energieffektivisering genom minskad biltrafik i städer: policy, process och institutioner. Projektet finansieras av Energimyndigheten. Målet med projektet är att bidra till energieffektiviseringen av transportsystemet genom att utveckla kunskap om metoder och arbetssätt för minskad biltrafik i kommuner. Projektet syftar också till kunskapsspridningen om dessa metoder. Många kommuner och regioner har som målsättning att öka kollektivtrafikens andel av det motoriserade resandet. Åtgärder som minskar bilresandet ökar möjligheten att nå dessa målsättningar.

Utvärdering av fria resor i kollektivtrafiken för äldre medborgare

Tania Dukic Willstrand, Per Henriksson, Lena Levin, Helena Svensson. K2 Research 2018:3. Lund 2018.
Denna studie är ett led i att undersöka säker mobilitet för äldre. Vilka förutsättningar behöver vi i samhället för att kunna säkerställa en säker mobilitet för äldre? Bilen är för många förstahandsvalet för transport. Alla kan dock inte köra och klimat- och hälsomålen stöttar inte heller att alla ska köra i egen bil. Fokus i denna studie är att undersöka hur seniorkortet kan vara ett komplement till äldres hållbara resande, både med avseende på miljö och hälsa.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Learning through collaboration in the Swedish public transport sector? Co-production through guidelines and living labs

Pettersson, Westerdahl, Hansson. Research in Transportation Economics. Available online 20 July 2018
The purpose of the paper is to analyse informal collaboration in the public transport sector. Two Swedish case studies, Living lab Uddevalla and Guidelines for Regional BRT are analysed and compared concerning what kind of learning occurred and what lessons regarding informal collaboration to draw from the two cases. For both cases the analysis indicates that individual, single loop learning is the most striking type of learning among the participants. The voluntary approach of the two cases has advantages and drawbacks. Advantages include that participants were truly interested in the issues of collaboration, which created energy and contributed to building trust. The main drawback identified was that in both cases the voluntary enthusiasm of the participants collided with the formal requirements of planning and decision making. This has stifled the possibility of the informal collaboration processes to induce change in prevailing practices.

Defining regional public transport

Joel Hansson, Fredrik Pettersson, Helena Svensson, Anders Wretstrand. K2 Working Papers 2018:7. Lund 2018.
When exploring preferences of existing and potential public transport passengers, it is relevant to acknowledge differences between different geographic scales: local, regional and interregional. However, the boundaries between these categories remain unclear. Some previous attempts have been made to define regional travel – and hence local and interregional travel – but the resulting definitions are somewhat vague and use diverse sets of metrics. In order to sort the terms, this paper aims to explore the perception of the concept regional travel through a survey among public transport professionals. In total, 290 completed questionnaires were collected. All continents are represented in the survey, but with a strong concentration of responses in North America and Europe. The results emphasise the importance of maintaining a distinction between functionality and technology, meaning that factors such as vehicle type or speed should not be included in the definition. Instead, the survey indicates a clear preference for either an administrative or a functional definition, depending on the purpose. The functional definition is argued to best fit the purpose of exploring passengers’ preferences, and hence the following working definition of regional public transport can be adopted: Regional public transport targets passengers travelling between separate urban areas or to rural areas, and a majority of the trips are made on a regular basis (daily to weekly in general).

Kommunerna och kollektivtrafiken

Philip Hansson, FredrIk Pettersson, Jamil Khan, Robert Hrelja. K2 Working Papers 2018:6. Lund 2018.
Denna rapport handlar om vad Sveriges kommuner gör för att främja kollektivtrafikresandet. Trots att kommunerna oftast inte har direkt rådighet över kollektivtrafiken spelar de en helt central roll genom att ha ansvar för andra områden med stor påverkan för kollektivtrafikens attraktivitet. Därmed är kommunernas arbete av stor vikt för en omställning till ett mer hållbart transportsystem. Genom fysisk planering och trafikplanering spelar kommuner exempelvis en viktig roll när det gäller att skapa långsiktiga förutsättningar för ökat resande med kollektivtrafiken. I många fall är även kommunerna stora arbetsgivare vilket innebär att de som kan ha möjlighet att påverka sina anställdas resvanor. Kommuner spelar även en viktig roll när det gäller åtgärder som påverkar användningen av bilar, exempelvis parkering och andra typer av åtgärder såsom omfördelning av trafikytor.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

A typology of inter-organisational coordination in public transport: The case of timetable planning in Denmark

Hedegaard Sørensen. Research in Transportation Economics. Available online 6 July 2018
State, regional, and municipal authorities, public transport authorities, and traffic operators at many levels are essential actors in public transport. This paper presents a typology of four coordination mechanisms relevant to interactions among public transport actors. These four mechanisms, i.e. ownership/instruction, contracts, partnerships, and mutual understanding, are all based on basic coordination mechanisms of markets, hierarchies, and networks. A case of timetable planning is examined, because inter-organisational coordination between actors is crucial in this field, and the usefulness of the typology is illustrated via three examples. The results stem from a Danish study of institutional constraints on timetable optimisation in inter-organisational relations. The empirical focus is eastern Denmark, including Greater Copenhagen.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Collaboration in public transport planning – Why, how and what?

Paulsson, Isaksson, Hedegaard Sørensen, Hrelja, Rye, Scholten. Research in Transportation Economics. Available online 8 July 2018.
This paper is about collaboration in public transport governance. Drawing upon the emerging literature that views collaboration through the lens of networks, we explore why and how regional public transport authorities collaborate with both municipalities and public transport operators in the planning of public transport. We also explore the advantages and disadvantages of such collaborations. Based on interviews with civil servants (government officers) in the Swedish metropolitan regions of Stockholm, Västra Götaland and Scania, we conclude that collaboration is, firstly, a way for the regional public transport authorities (RPTA) to engage with the local municipalities and develop joint agreements on public transport priorities. It is also a way to build a common identity with the public transport operators, who operate services under tendered contracts. Secondly, we find that collaboration takes place during official meetings, as well as in informal conversations and face-to-face dialogues. Thirdly, the potential advantages and disadvantages of collaboration hinge on the ability of coordinating actors to put in place processes where the feasibility of plans can be established, and where a sense of common identity can be constructed.

Kollektivtrafikens bidrag till samhällsutveckling

Vanessa Stjernborg & Desirée Nilsson. K2 Research 2018:2. Lund 2018.
Rapporten sammanfattar forskningsprojektet "Kollektivtrafikens bidrag till samhällsutveckling" i syfte att utforska hur kollektivtrafikens bidrag till samhällsutvecklingen förstås och utvärderas. Projektet har under en treårsperiod, och främst genom intervjuer, litteratur- och dokumentstudier, samlat kunskap om hur kollektivtrafikens bidrag till samhällsutveckling förstås och utvärderas.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Promoting sustainability through national transport planning

M. B. Barfod, S. Leleur, H. Gudmundsson, C. H. Sørensen and C. Greve. (2018). Promoting sustainability through national transport planning. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research (EJTIR). Volume 18, Issue 3, online as of June 22th, 2018.
This following special issue of the European Journal of Transport Infrastructure Research (EJTIR) containing 4 scientific papers is the result of the work conducted under the research project ‘National Transport Planning – Sustainability, Institutions and Tools’ (SUSTAIN) (2012- 2017) financed by the Danish Innovation Fund. SUSTAIN was coordinated by first the Department of Transport of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU Transport) and later as the result of a reorganisation of the transport research at DTU by the Department of Management Engineering (DTU Management Engineering). The project was carried out in cooperation with several Danish and international partners.

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