Publications

K2 publishes reports of various kinds, mostly in Swedish. Filter "Articles" for English.

Vetenskapliga artiklar

Swedish and Scottish National Transport Policy and Spend: A Social Equity Analysis

Tom Rye and Anders Wretstrand 29 March 2019
The topic of social equity in transport planning has been dealt with, in particular, by authors such as Martens (2012) and Martens and Golob (2012) using a social justice based-approach. However, such an approach, whilst valuable and analytically rigorous (based as it is on accessibility modelling), does not consider a wide range of possible other social impacts of transport, as set out in a framework first put forward by Geurs et al. (2009). This paper uses Geurs’ analytical framework to consider two empirical case studies: The National Transport Strategy for Scotland, adopted in January 2016, together with associated national level spending plans; and Sweden’s 2014–2025 National Transport Plan. The paper will first summarise the contents of each document before analysing them in relation to the categories of social impact that Geurs (2009) identifies, and assess how, in relation to each category of impact, various social groups will benefit or disbenefit. A range of projects (planned) to be delivered by the two national strategies is then analysed in relation to the criteria. This analysis shows that the two national strategies/plans are in their distribution of spending, and the projects funded are generally working away from greater social equity in their distributional impacts.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Governing Mobility-as-a-Service: Insights from Sweden and Finland

Göran Smith et al, book chapter in The Governance of Smart Transportation Systems, 2019
Based on a review of recent developments in Sweden and Finland, this chapter analyzes the roles of public organizations in the governance of a transition to Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS). In particular, we draw on insights from transition frameworks to explore what these two pioneering cases can teach us about how the public sector can both enable the development of MaaS and steer the development trajectory toward diffusion of MaaS offerings that contribute to transport policy goals. We propose three main points. Firstly, public sector organizations at national, regional, and local levels have key roles to play in potential transitions to MaaS, regardless of their intended operative roles in the emerging MaaS ecosystem. Secondly, a central task for public sector organizations is to align operational and tactical MaaS governance activities with both an overarching MaaS strategy and with other relevant strategies, such as transport infrastructures investments, programs for economic and industrial growth, city plans, and parking norms. Thirdly, new models and tools for public–private collaboration are needed in order to effectively govern the development and diffusion of sustainable MaaS.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Potentials of Context-Aware Travel Support during Unplanned Public Transport Disturbances

Åse Jevinger, Jan Persson, Sustainability 2019, 11(6)
Travel support for public transport today usually takes no or little account of the traveler’s personal needs and current context. Thereby, travelers are often suggested irrelevant travel plans, which may force them to search for information from other sources. In particular, this is a problem during unplanned disturbances. By incorporating the traveler’s context information into the travel support, travelers could be provided with individually tailored information. This would especially benefit travelers who find it more difficult than others to navigate the public transport system. Furthermore, it might raise the accessibility and general attractiveness of public transport. This paper contributes with an understanding of how information about the traveler’s context can enhance the support provided by travel planners, in the case of disturbances in public transport. In particular, the paper includes a high-level analysis of how and in which situations context information can be useful. The analysis shows how information about the traveler’s context can improve travel planners, as well as highlights some risks in relation to some identified scenarios. Several technologies for retrieving information about the physical context of the traveler are also identified. The study is based on a literature review, a workshop, and interviews with domain experts.
K2-rapporter

Smart tillgänglighet i bytespunkter. En litteraturstudie

Till Koglin, Romina Carrasco, Jan Persson, K2 Working Papers 2019:4
Denna litteraturstudie är en del av projektet ”Smart tillgänglighet i bytespunkter” som är ett gemensamt forskningsprojekt mellan K2 och Mistra SAMS. Studien syftar till att få en bild av vilken forskning som finns angående bytespunkters planering och om det redan finns forskning som kopplar ihop bytespunkter och mobilitetstjänster. Vidare är ett undersyfte att ta reda på vad som är viktigt ur ett resenärsperspektiv och hur detta möjligen kan kopplas till bytespunkter. Arbetet behandlar vetenskaplig litteratur. Uppdelningen kommer att vara så att en del kommer att handla om den fysiska miljön och planering och en del om informationsflöden och de tekniska utmaningarna. Vidare är ett delsyfte med studien att bidra med strukturer kring roller och funktioner till framtida kollektivtrafik och bytespunkter som sannolikt kommer innefatta digitala mobilitetstjänster. Metoden för denna studie var sökningar med olika söksträngar i GoogleScholar. Artiklar som är en del av denna studie valdes ut för vidare läsning av abstract efter läsning av titlar och keywords för att sedan läsa abstracts. Rapportens resultat är uppdelade i tre kapitel som behandlar bytespunkters planering, utveckling och förbättring, digitalisering av bytespunkter och användarperspektivet av bytespunkter. Litteraturstudien har visat att den stor del av litteraturen enbart handlar om kollektivtrafiken mer generellt och berör bytespunkter mer som en aspekt av många. Vidare visas att bytespunkternas utformning måste leda till att byten blir effektiva och snabba. Om uppehällen blir längre måste bytespunkternas funktioner utökas att inkludera mer en enbart information om byten. Med fördel kan funktionen utökas med shoppingmöjligheter, restauranger etc. för att skapa ett trevligt uppehåll i bytespunkten. En annan viktig aspekt är själva lokalisering av bytespunkten. Lokalisering ska göra byten mer effektiva och minska byten överhuvudtaget. Genom en bra lokalisering ska restiden och väntetiden minska, vilket leder till en mer positiv upplevelse av kollektivtrafikresan. Flera artiklar föreslår metoder, ofta med hjälp av olika digitala hjälpmedel för att effektivisera byten och planeringen av kollektivtrafiken generellt. Övergripande kan det slås fast att om upplevelsen av byten är positiva för resenären kan hela resan vara en mer positiv upplevelse och med detta ge en positiv bild av kollektivtrafiken. Nyckeln till detta är enligt litteraturen en effektivisering av byten genom en smart utformning av bytespunkter och en bra koordinering av de olika delarna av resan. En viktig aspekt i detta är informationsförmedling till resenären. Informationen måste vara enkel och tydlig för att resenären snabbt hitta till nästa avgång eller bli informerad hur mycket tid som personen kommer att tillbringa i bytespunkten. Ett viktigt resultat från litteraturstudien är att digitalisering i kombination med bytespunkter är ett tämligen outforskat område som kräver mer uppmärksamhet inom forskningen. Vissa artiklar pekar på att framförallt information till resenären kan förbättras med hjälp av digitala hjälpmedel eller med hjälp av så kallade MaaS. Vidare kommer digitaliseringen möjliggör insamlingen av nya typer av data om resenären. Det slås fast i denna studie att det finns med andra ord mycket potential för mobilitetstjänster för att effektivisera byten mellan olika transportslag. Informationen till resenären är troligen det som mobilitetstjänster kan bidra mest med. Avslutningsvis vill vi dock slå fast att mer forskning kring bytespunkter i kombination med mobilitetstjänster krävs för att kunna utnyttja den fulla potentialen mobilitetstjänster kan erbjuda och för att kunna förbättra och effektivisera kollektivtrafikresandet och reseupplevelse.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

An urban bikeway network design model for inclusive and equitable transport policies

Rosalia Camporeale et al, Transportation Research Procedia, Vol 27, 2019
This study suggests an optimization framework to plan and design a network of bike lanes in an urban context, based on equity principles and subject to a given available budget. The novelty of the proposal consists in an objective function that aims at minimizing the existing inequities among different population groups in terms of accessibility/opportunity to the bikeways. The proposed methodology represents a reliable decision support system tool that could help transport authorities/managers to select the priority areas of their future investments related to the cycling infrastructures. To prove the effectiveness and value of the methodology, an application with relevant analysis to a test case study is presented
K2-rapporter

The impact on bus ridership of passenger incentive contracts in Swedish public transport

Andreas Vigren, Roger Pyddoke, K2 Working Papers 2019:3
Over the years, passenger incentives have increasingly been used in Swedish public bus transport to increase ridership by introducing passenger incentive contracts. In those contracts, operator revenue comprises production-related revenue and a per-passenger–based incentive payment. In 2015, half of all active contracts were of this type, but there are few evaluations on whether the contract type increases ridership. Using rich passenger data, this paper analyses whether the ridership increase in the Skåne region can be attributed to the introduction of this contract type. The results cannot prove that passenger incentive contracts have increased ridership more than traditional gross-cost contracts. This is probably because both the per-passenger payment and operator freedom to adjust traffic provision are too low. While simulation studies have previously shown that higher payments and freedoms would increase bus ridership, it is unclear whether public transport authorities should leave the freedom to adjust traffic provision to operators, given the authorities’ social welfare responsibility. Instead, factors outside the contract, such as car-restricting measures and improved bus road space, might be more effective in increasing the number of passengers.
K2-rapporter

Marknader och kollektivtrafik - En litteraturöversikt av teorier och begrepp

Malin McGlinn, Alexander Paulsson, Stig Westerdahl och Anders Wretstrand, K2 Working Papers 2019:2
Denna litteraturstudie är kopplad till ett forskningsprojekt som handlar om kollektivtrafikens marknader i Sverige. När en ny kollektivtrafiklag trädde i kraft 2012 var syftet att vidga utbudet av aktörer på kollektivtrafikmarknaderna, stärka konkurrensen samt öka andelen resenärer som åker kollektivt. De regionala kollektivtrafikmyndigheterna (RKM) fick i uppdrag att upprätta marknadsanalyser samt definiera och besluta om allmän trafikplikt. Utifrån detta upphandlas sedan trafiken. Tidigare omfattande forskning om upphandling av kollektivtrafik har främst berört kontrakt och upphandling utifrån kontraktsekonomi och kontraktsdesign. De utomkontraktsliga faktorer som formar kontrakten på en marknad har däremot inte studerats Med inspiration från ny ekonomisk sociologi och organisationsteori kommer denna litteraturstudie att kartlägga vilka teoretiska begrepp och ramverk som kan användas för att förstå och förklara hur kollektivtrafiken i Sverige fungerar. Ny ekonomisk sociologi och organisationsteori kan bidra med nya perspektiv på hur dessa marknader fungerar då de blottlägger de utbyten och relationer som kringgärdar och i praktiken formar avtalen. I dessa processer är standarder och standardiseringsprocesser centrala eftersom de tydliggör och fördelar risk mellan parterna. Likaså är de olika aktörernas kalkylativa praktiker viktiga för att förstå hur anbuden formar marknaden, samt hur marknadsmisslyckanden påverkar kollektivtrafikmarknadens organisering. Med stöd i valda delar av nämnda teorier kan, innovativ och nyttig kunskap genereras om hur kollektivtrafikmarknaderna i Sverige fungerar. Förutom att bidra till att höja kunskapsnivån i branschen, är målet på sikt är att kunna ge förslag på hur nya arbetssätt och metoder skulle kunna utvecklas.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

How May Public Transport Influence the Practice of Everyday Life among Younger and Older People and How May Their Practices Influence Public Transport?

Lena Levin in Social Sciences vol. 8 issue 3, March 2019
This paper examines public transport use through the lens of practice to understand the perspectives of two categories of public transport users: Younger and older people. In taking this approach, we assume that the forms of mobility in a society are dependent on citizens’ everyday practices and on the structures of the cities, landscapes, etc. Transport needs and accessibility may vary depending on contexts (i.e., where and how we live) and on the various resources of groups of citizens. Results indicated that younger people are repeatedly referred to public transport to meet their mobility needs, while older people are more often car-dependent. Local variations, among both younger and older people, indicate higher confidence in public transport in big and medium-sized cities and a greater desire for car ownership in small cities. For the transition to sustainable mobility, e.g., public transport, transport associations and local governments should be responsive to the practice of everyday life among citizens: e.g., younger people’s leisure activities in afternoons and weekends, and older people’s wish for accessible transport service outside the dominant flow of passengers and their daily commuting practice. The data come from Sweden, specifically from focus groups with teenagers aged 14–16 years and retired people aged 63–97 years.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Urban Transport and Eco-Urbanism: A Global Comparative Study of Cities with a Special Focus on Five Larger Swedish Urban Regions

Jeffrey Kennworthy, Urban Sci. 2019, 3(1)
Urban transport is critical in shaping the form and function of cities, particularly the level of automobile dependence and sustainability. This paper presents a detailed study of the urban transport eco-urbanism characteristics of the Stockholm, Malmö, Göteborg, Linköping, and Helsingborg urban regions in southern Sweden. It compares these cities to those in the USA, Australia, Canada, and two large wealthy Asian cities (Singapore and Hong Kong). It finds that while density is critical in determining many features of eco-urbanism, especially mobility patterns and particularly how much public transport, walking, and cycling are used, Swedish cities maintain healthy levels of all these more sustainable modes and only moderate levels of car use, while having less than half the density of other European cities. Swedish settlement patterns and urban transport policies mean they also enjoy, globally, the lowest level of transport emissions and transport deaths per capita and similar levels of energy use in private passenger transport as other European cities, and a fraction of that used in lower density North American and Australian cities. Swedish urban public transport systems are generally well provided for and form an integral part of the way their cities function, considering their lower densities. Their use of walking and cycling is high, though not as high as in other European cities and together with public transport cater for nearly 50% of the total daily trip making, compared to auto-dependent regions with between about 75% and 85% car trips. The paper explores these and other patterns in some detail. It provides a clear depiction of the strengths and weaknesses of Swedish cities in urban transport, some key policy directions to improve them and posits possible explanations for some of the atypical patterns observed
Övrigt

Integrating Gender into Transport Planning

Autors: Christina Scholten et al, Springer 2019
This edited collection brings together feminist research on transport and planning from different epistemologies, with the intention to contribute to a more holistic transport planning practice. With a feminist perspective on transport policy and planning, the volume insists on the political character of transport planning and policy, and challenges gender-blindness in a policy area that impacts the everyday lives of women, men, girls, and boys. The chapters discuss everyday mobility as an embodied and situated activity in both conceptual and theoretical ways and suggest practical tools for change. The contributions of this collection are threefold: integrating gender research and transport planning, combining quantitative and qualitative gender research perspectives and methods, and highlighting the need to acknowledge the politicization of transport planning and transport practice.
K2-rapporter

Sustainable Mobility in Swedish Cities

Jeff Kenworthy, K2 Working Papers 2019:1.
This final report presents the results of 124 urban transport related indicators for 2015 for Sweden’s five most populous urban regions and compares them with each other and against cities in the USA, Australia, Canada, Europe and two large cities in Asia (Singapore and Hong Kong). Results indicate that Swedish cities are atypically low in density, and high in roads and freeways compared to most other European cities. Partly resulting from these conditions, Swedish cities on average have much lower public transport boardings than typical European cities (roughly half), but at the same time they are much better than in the more auto-dependent regions in the USA, Australia and Canada where densities are also low. Notwithstanding their moderate public transport use, their normalised farebox and operating costs data are relatively similar to the other cities in the study. Public transport use measured by passenger kilometres is closer to European levels due to the longer distances travelled by public transport in Swedish cities. Modal split of daily trips is also just under 50% for public transport, walking and cycling combined, meaning that modal share in these five Swedish urban regions is pivoted rather equitably between the more sustainable and less sustainable modes. Car use per person (vehicle kilometres) is only a little higher in the Swedish cities and passenger kilometres per person in cars are about the same compared to typical European cities. The percentage of total motorised passenger kilometres accounted for by public transport is much higher than in the USA, Canada and Australia, but less than in other European and in Asia cities. Energy use in private motorised passenger transport is, due to comparable car use levels, like that in other European cities and very much lower than in the auto-cities of North America and Australia. The Swedish cities excel in their extremely low transport emissions per capita and low spatial intensity of emissions (per hectare) compared to every other region in the world and even the worst Swedish cities are better than the best of the other cities. Likewise, in transport fatalities, Swedish cities are the lowest in the world. Some factors that seem to contribute to the above sometimes paradoxical situations are that: a. Swedish cities have significantly lower car ownership than might be expected, lower even than other European cities and average wealth levels in 2015, as measured by metropolitan GDP are below typical European levels (though comparable to 2005/6 levels Australian and Canadian cities). b. These five Swedish cities have comparatively low parking supply in their CBDs and a relatively high proportion of metropolitan jobs located in the CBDs, which assists public transport in the journey-to-work. c. despite low densities, Swedish cities have developed relatively well-performing and more extensive public transport systems than many comparable lower density cities – they have healthy levels of service in terms of seat kilometres per capita, only eclipsed by other European cities and the Asian cities. However, seat occupancy is comparatively low, indicating generous levels of spare capacity that could be utilised through better urban planning to create back-loading of passengers. d. Swedish cities have the highest level of public transport line length per persons, as well as high levels of reserved public transport route per person, although they are also well-endowed with freeways, which tends to undercut this advantage. e. average operating speeds for public transport in Sweden seem to be higher than most other cities and public transport overall enjoys a modest speed advantage over car speeds. f. Swedish cities spend relatively generous amounts of money operating their public transport systems, on average about 1.34% of their local GDPs, which significantly exceeds that of the auto-dependent regions, and is close to the other European cities (1.50%). g. cost recovery from fares of public transport operating costs is on average a bit less than 50% and less on average that the other global cities. This may be partly indicative of a recognition in Sweden of the proven value of public transport systems in helping to create urban regions that are only moderately car dependent by developed world standards, despite lower densities, because farebox recovery takes no account of public transport’s broader economic benefits and h. Swedish cities have significant areas of urban fabric that are supportive of non-motorised modes and where walking and cycling is high, leading to over 27% of daily trips in Swedish cities by these modes, despite a very cold climate. Three key weaknesses that have emerged in Swedish cities are: (a) their overall low density that would benefit from targeted increases in higher density development, especially linked to expanded and improved public transport, especially rail. Stockholm is by far the best of the Swedish cities in sustainable transport and although it is still overall a relatively low-density region, it is bound together by strong urban rail networks around which very high density, mixed use centres have been built; (b) the need to restrict further development of already abundant freeway systems in all five of the Swedish cities and (c) an over-reliance on bus systems and the need for more extensive urban rail networks. A major difference between Swedish and European cities generally is that European cities have three times higher rail use and this is a critical distinguishing feature in the lower public transport use in Swedish cities.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Mobility as a service: Comparing developments in Sweden and Finland

Göran Smith, Jana Sochor, Steven Sarasini, Research in Transportation Business & Management, June 2018
Mobility as a Service (MaaS) developments have thus far progressed along different trajectories in Sweden and Finland, two pioneering countries in MaaS. Still, little is known about why this is. Addressing this knowledge gap, we investigate the role of institutions as key structures given their capacity to bring about differentiated outcomes. Based on 31 interviews with key stakeholders, we first describe drivers and barriers of MaaS developments in the two countries. Thereafter, through an analysis of similarities and differences across the cases, we identify a set of general implications for MaaS policymakers and practitioners. Developments in Finland demonstrate the importance of top-level support, of inter-organizational collaboration and of trust among key stakeholders. The Swedish case reiterates the need for inter-sectorial collaboration, particularly with regard to creating the right conditions for commercialization, and to involving stakeholders on both strategic and operational levels of the transport sector in developing the vision for MaaS. Lastly, we assess the utility of the applied theoretical framework, and comment on the necessity of recognizing that both practice-based and structural changes are needed in order to facilitate institutional change.

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