K2 ger ut rapporter av olika slag. K2 Outreach är vår serie för populärvetenskapliga sammanfattningar med branschen som målgrupp. K2 Research är vår serie för vetenskapliga rapporter och vid sidan om den står K2 Working Papers i vilket PM och motsvarande ges ut.

Här hittar du också utöver detta rapporter vi gett ut i samverkan med andra aktörer, samt utvärderingsrapporter och motsvarande. Vi publicerar också våra publicerade vetenskapliga artiklar här, ibland i nedladdningsbar pdf och ibland med länk. Vissa gånger går det endast att läsa en sammanfattning av artikeln, om du inte är inloggad i databasen. Detta beror på upphovsrättsrätten och är tyvärr inget vi kan påverka.

Läs mer om vår publiceringspolicy som bland annat beskriver vår granskningsprocess för våra rapporter: PDF iconpubliceringspolicy_k2.pdf

Vetenskapliga artiklar

Cars. Problematisations, measures and blind spots in local transport and land use policy

Robert Hrelja, Land Use Policy, vol. 87
Goals concerning reduced car traffic are found in most European cities, indicating a potential change in local transport policy and land use planning, which have traditionally been very car-centric. This paper analyses goals and measures to reduce car traffic in Swedish municipalities’ long-term transport and land use plans. Theoretically, the paper is based on an understanding of policies as parts of ‘problem representations’ that create particular ways of understanding car traffic as a policy problem, which in turn influence the measures seen as appropriate or inappropriate. The results indicate that changes are underway. At the heart of these changes are narratives about city development in which municipalities understand the ‘attractive city’ as one where cars are defined as a problem to be addressed. However, the dominant policy problematisation produce several ‘blind spots’. Regional car trips, including travel to out-of-town shopping areas, are left unproblematised in this representation of the problem, meaning that measures addressing such trips are ignored in policy making. The paper builds our understanding of how policy practices influence the potential for change towards sustainability by discussing whether municipalities are doing enough to address the big problems with cars.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Evaluation of free public transport for older people in Sweden

Tania Dukic Willstrand, Per Henriksson, Helena Svensson and Lena Levin, Proceedings of the 6th Humanist Conference, The Hague, Netherlands, 13-14 June 2018
Older citizens safe mobility is an issue as the number of older people is growing and expect to live longer than previous generations . To keep their independence and to allow them to take part in the society, transport accessibility is an issue to be solved. The present study dev eloped a survey to evaluate a subsidised public transport card for older citizens in the western part of Sweden and how the physical health contributes to the use of public transport . A questionnaire was sent to 1500 older citizens in three municipalities to examine how this measure influence d their travel patterns and whether this is an efficient measure to increase their use of public transport . Results show a significant effect of the senior card which vary depending on the municipality and incomes. Some older citizens increase d travelling with public transport ( PT )), they changed the time of the day for some activities and to some extend prioritize d PT in another way than before they got the subsidised card . The senior card contributed to shift travel mod e choice from private car to PT but also from cycling /walking to PT. To reach a sustainable safe mobility for older citizens, a discussion is on going to find and target measures to this broad group of individuals. Health and environment goals need to be considered to reach the desired results.

Kollektivtrafik i storstadens skugga - Krönikor från Living lab i Uddevalla

Karin Book och Stig Westerdahl (redaktörer)
Uddevalla är en kommun med många trafikutmaningar. Det finns en lång rad frågor att ta tag i för att få en attraktiv och välfungerande trafiksituation, med hållbara transporter snarare än bilen i fokus. Detta är nödvändigt inför framtiden. Och Uddevalla är inte alls unikt, denna skrift drivs av övertygelsen att det finns lärdomar härifrån som är giltiga i många andra städer bortom de stora metropolerna. Denna skrift innehåller ett antal korta texter som summerar resultaten från forsknings- och samverkansprojektet Living lab Uddevalla med syftet att utforska, problematisera och peka på utvecklingsriktningar för kollektivtrafiken i Uddevalla. Vi hoppas att skriften ska kunna inspirera också läsare som verkar i andra städer med liknande förutsättningar.

An international review of experiences from on-demand public transport services

Fredrik Pettersson K2 Working Paper 2019:5
The aim of this report is to contribute to develop knowledge about what the developments in positioning and smartphone technology bring to the table for the public transport sector. The overarching question in the report is: can new technology improve demandresponsive transport (DRT)? The cases analysed in this report were selected using a number of criteria to delimit the sample and distinguish the cases from “traditional” DRT and from ride-hailing services. A total of 35 different services were identified that met the criteria for what this report refers to as on-demand public transport. The identified cases are located in nine different countries and 23 different cities or regions, and includes services that have been or are operating in major urban areas, smaller towns, suburbs, semi-rural and rural areas. Nine services, most of which are subsidised by the public sector, have been analysed in more detail. The comparison of the cases reveal differences and similarities concerning aspects such as vehicles and fleet sizes, and service partnerships. Different variants are also described regarding operational policies of the services. This includes origin-destination policies, areas covered by the services, where to pick up and drop off passengers, operating hours, booking method, time of booking, payment and pricing. For the nine cases that are the focus of the report a comparison of patronage, productivity and production costs are also made. A main conclusion from this part of the study is that so far there is scant evidence that new technology improves the productivity of DRT. This suggests that new technology is no panacea for fixing the problems of DRT and the study shows that thus far, at least, on-demand public transport hardly represents a transport revolution.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Discrete event simulation of bus terminals

Therese Lindberg, Licentiate Thesis, Linköping May 2019
Public transport is important to society as it provides spatial accessibility and reduces congestion and pollution in comparison to other motorized modes. To assure a high-quality service, all parts of the system need to be well-functioning and properly planned. One important aspect for the system's bus terminals is their capacity. This needs to be high enough to avoid congestion and queues and the delays these may lead to. During planning processes, various suggested designs and solutions for a terminal need to be evaluated. Estimating capacity and how well the suggestions will function is a challenging problem, however. It requires analysis of complex interactions and behaviour of the vehicles. This sort of analyses can preferably be carried out using microsimulation. Furthermore, a discrete event simulation approach can make use of the fact that the path of a vehicle through a terminal can readily be described by a sequence of events (such as arriving, starting to drive to a stop etc.). The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate how discrete event simulation can be used to evaluate bus terminal design and traffic control policies. The main contribution is the development of a method for bus terminal simulation. As a first step, a discrete event simulation model of a combined bus and tram stop is formulated. The model is tested on a real system where the current design is compared to an alternative one. The test shows that a model developed with a discrete event approach can be used to evaluate the situation at a stop and compare design alternatives. In the next step, a general discrete event simulation model of bus terminals is formulated. A modular approach is introduced, where a terminal can be constructed from a set of module building blocks. Another important contribution of the model is its spatial resolution that allows for queues and blockages to occur throughout the terminal. By applying the simulation model in a case study, it is shown that the model can be used to evaluate and compare various scenarios related to the layout, number of passengers and the outside traffic situation. Lastly, the bus terminal simulation model is used in a second case study in order to compare model output with empirical data. This study identified a number of factors that may have had an influence on differences between observations and simulation results and that is of interest to look further into. This includes the actual adherence to terminal rules and the effects of model parameters.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Disparities in mobility among older people: Findings from a capability-based travel

Jean Ryan, Anders Wretstrand and Steven M Schmidt, May 2019
Despite some incremental policy shifts accounting for transport equity concerns, the norms within which transport systems world wide currently function are still implicitly exclusive. Older people constitute a group which is particularly susceptible to issues within the transport system. However, this susceptibility is not evenly distributed, partly due to the considerable heterogeneity in circumstances among this group. The aim of this study is to advance the methods in-forming the transport equity policy agenda by conducting an empirical investigation of disparities in capabilities based on Sen's Capability Approach. This is done by identifying which resources and characteristics among those aged 65–79 are associated with fewer opportunities relative to their peers. By focusing on capabilities (instead of proxies), the disparities reflecting equity concerns can be more clearly depicted. The research material comprises 1149 interviews with those living in Sweden's large metropolitan regions: Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö. Several analyses were developed in order to address the research questions: a multivariate multinomial logistic regression, multivariate binary logistic regressions and a basic analysis of frequencies. Clear links were identified between social resources, holding a driving license, access to public transport, income, health condition and age and capabilities. These results call for a greater focus on capabilities in travel surveys and a more fine-grained approach to equity analyses and policies by accounting for intersectionality effects. As such, more targeted and holistic policy measures can be developed.

Digitaliseringens möjligheter för ökat medborgardeltagande i planeringen

Vanessa Stjernborg K2 Outreach 2019:1
Intresset för informationsteknologi som ett verktyg för deltagande planering har markant ökat under senare decennium, inte minst när det gäller nyttjandet av GIS för mer deltagarbaserade kartläggningsmetoder, och för ett mer demokratiskt och inkluderande angreppssätt. Participatory GIS (PGIS), public participation GIS (PPGIS) och volunteered geographic information (VGI) är ytterst närbesläktade och många gånger går begreppen in i varandra. Begreppen står som samlingsnamn och andra begrepp som används i sammanhanget är exempelvis participatory mapping eller collaborative mapping. En viktig del är att de möjliggör ett insamlande av kvalitativ data i en större utsträckning än vad mer traditionella kvalitativa metoder i regel gör, och metoderna har exempelvis använts för att studera tillgänglighet till kollektivtrafik. Det har också utvecklats en rad applikationer som bygger på collaborative mapping, inte minst för att undersöka trygghet i urbana miljöer eller för att undersöka cyklisters upplevelser av cykelparkeringar. Digital teknik erbjuder nya möjligheter för deltagande planering och även för att inkludera mer sociala perspektiv. Likaså tillåts det att kombinera kvalitativ och kvantitativ data. Det är dock angeläget att teknologin nyttjas med medborgaren i fokus, snarare än tvärtom. Det är också viktigt att ta hänsyn till att förmågan och möjligheten att nyttja digitala verktyg varierar hos befolkningen.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Swedish and Scottish National Transport Policy and Spend: A Social Equity Analysis

Tom Rye and Anders Wretstrand 29 March 2019
The topic of social equity in transport planning has been dealt with, in particular, by authors such as Martens (2012) and Martens and Golob (2012) using a social justice based-approach. However, such an approach, whilst valuable and analytically rigorous (based as it is on accessibility modelling), does not consider a wide range of possible other social impacts of transport, as set out in a framework first put forward by Geurs et al. (2009). This paper uses Geurs’ analytical framework to consider two empirical case studies: The National Transport Strategy for Scotland, adopted in January 2016, together with associated national level spending plans; and Sweden’s 2014–2025 National Transport Plan. The paper will first summarise the contents of each document before analysing them in relation to the categories of social impact that Geurs (2009) identifies, and assess how, in relation to each category of impact, various social groups will benefit or disbenefit. A range of projects (planned) to be delivered by the two national strategies is then analysed in relation to the criteria. This analysis shows that the two national strategies/plans are in their distribution of spending, and the projects funded are generally working away from greater social equity in their distributional impacts.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Governing Mobility-as-a-Service: Insights from Sweden and Finland

Göran Smith et al, book chapter in The Governance of Smart Transportation Systems, 2019
Based on a review of recent developments in Sweden and Finland, this chapter analyzes the roles of public organizations in the governance of a transition to Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS). In particular, we draw on insights from transition frameworks to explore what these two pioneering cases can teach us about how the public sector can both enable the development of MaaS and steer the development trajectory toward diffusion of MaaS offerings that contribute to transport policy goals. We propose three main points. Firstly, public sector organizations at national, regional, and local levels have key roles to play in potential transitions to MaaS, regardless of their intended operative roles in the emerging MaaS ecosystem. Secondly, a central task for public sector organizations is to align operational and tactical MaaS governance activities with both an overarching MaaS strategy and with other relevant strategies, such as transport infrastructures investments, programs for economic and industrial growth, city plans, and parking norms. Thirdly, new models and tools for public–private collaboration are needed in order to effectively govern the development and diffusion of sustainable MaaS.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Potentials of Context-Aware Travel Support during Unplanned Public Transport Disturbances

Åse Jevinger, Jan Persson, Sustainability 2019, 11(6)
Travel support for public transport today usually takes no or little account of the traveler’s personal needs and current context. Thereby, travelers are often suggested irrelevant travel plans, which may force them to search for information from other sources. In particular, this is a problem during unplanned disturbances. By incorporating the traveler’s context information into the travel support, travelers could be provided with individually tailored information. This would especially benefit travelers who find it more difficult than others to navigate the public transport system. Furthermore, it might raise the accessibility and general attractiveness of public transport. This paper contributes with an understanding of how information about the traveler’s context can enhance the support provided by travel planners, in the case of disturbances in public transport. In particular, the paper includes a high-level analysis of how and in which situations context information can be useful. The analysis shows how information about the traveler’s context can improve travel planners, as well as highlights some risks in relation to some identified scenarios. Several technologies for retrieving information about the physical context of the traveler are also identified. The study is based on a literature review, a workshop, and interviews with domain experts.

Smart tillgänglighet i bytespunkter. En litteraturstudie

Till Koglin, Romina Carrasco, Jan Persson, K2 Working Papers 2019:4
Denna litteraturstudie är en del av projektet ”Smart tillgänglighet i bytespunkter” som är ett gemensamt forskningsprojekt mellan K2 och Mistra SAMS. Studien syftar till att få en bild av vilken forskning som finns angående bytespunkters planering och om det redan finns forskning som kopplar ihop bytespunkter och mobilitetstjänster. Vidare är ett undersyfte att ta reda på vad som är viktigt ur ett resenärsperspektiv och hur detta möjligen kan kopplas till bytespunkter. Arbetet behandlar vetenskaplig litteratur. Uppdelningen kommer att vara så att en del kommer att handla om den fysiska miljön och planering och en del om informationsflöden och de tekniska utmaningarna. Vidare är ett delsyfte med studien att bidra med strukturer kring roller och funktioner till framtida kollektivtrafik och bytespunkter som sannolikt kommer innefatta digitala mobilitetstjänster. Metoden för denna studie var sökningar med olika söksträngar i GoogleScholar. Artiklar som är en del av denna studie valdes ut för vidare läsning av abstract efter läsning av titlar och keywords för att sedan läsa abstracts. Rapportens resultat är uppdelade i tre kapitel som behandlar bytespunkters planering, utveckling och förbättring, digitalisering av bytespunkter och användarperspektivet av bytespunkter. Litteraturstudien har visat att den stor del av litteraturen enbart handlar om kollektivtrafiken mer generellt och berör bytespunkter mer som en aspekt av många. Vidare visas att bytespunkternas utformning måste leda till att byten blir effektiva och snabba. Om uppehällen blir längre måste bytespunkternas funktioner utökas att inkludera mer en enbart information om byten. Med fördel kan funktionen utökas med shoppingmöjligheter, restauranger etc. för att skapa ett trevligt uppehåll i bytespunkten. En annan viktig aspekt är själva lokalisering av bytespunkten. Lokalisering ska göra byten mer effektiva och minska byten överhuvudtaget. Genom en bra lokalisering ska restiden och väntetiden minska, vilket leder till en mer positiv upplevelse av kollektivtrafikresan. Flera artiklar föreslår metoder, ofta med hjälp av olika digitala hjälpmedel för att effektivisera byten och planeringen av kollektivtrafiken generellt. Övergripande kan det slås fast att om upplevelsen av byten är positiva för resenären kan hela resan vara en mer positiv upplevelse och med detta ge en positiv bild av kollektivtrafiken. Nyckeln till detta är enligt litteraturen en effektivisering av byten genom en smart utformning av bytespunkter och en bra koordinering av de olika delarna av resan. En viktig aspekt i detta är informationsförmedling till resenären. Informationen måste vara enkel och tydlig för att resenären snabbt hitta till nästa avgång eller bli informerad hur mycket tid som personen kommer att tillbringa i bytespunkten. Ett viktigt resultat från litteraturstudien är att digitalisering i kombination med bytespunkter är ett tämligen outforskat område som kräver mer uppmärksamhet inom forskningen. Vissa artiklar pekar på att framförallt information till resenären kan förbättras med hjälp av digitala hjälpmedel eller med hjälp av så kallade MaaS. Vidare kommer digitaliseringen möjliggör insamlingen av nya typer av data om resenären. Det slås fast i denna studie att det finns med andra ord mycket potential för mobilitetstjänster för att effektivisera byten mellan olika transportslag. Informationen till resenären är troligen det som mobilitetstjänster kan bidra mest med. Avslutningsvis vill vi dock slå fast att mer forskning kring bytespunkter i kombination med mobilitetstjänster krävs för att kunna utnyttja den fulla potentialen mobilitetstjänster kan erbjuda och för att kunna förbättra och effektivisera kollektivtrafikresandet och reseupplevelse.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

An urban bikeway network design model for inclusive and equitable transport policies

Rosalia Camporeale et al, Transportation Research Procedia, Vol 27, 2019
This study suggests an optimization framework to plan and design a network of bike lanes in an urban context, based on equity principles and subject to a given available budget. The novelty of the proposal consists in an objective function that aims at minimizing the existing inequities among different population groups in terms of accessibility/opportunity to the bikeways. The proposed methodology represents a reliable decision support system tool that could help transport authorities/managers to select the priority areas of their future investments related to the cycling infrastructures. To prove the effectiveness and value of the methodology, an application with relevant analysis to a test case study is presented

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