Publikationer

K2 ger ut rapporter av olika slag. K2 Outreach är vår serie för populärvetenskapliga sammanfattningar med branschen som målgrupp. K2 Research är vår serie för vetenskapliga rapporter och vid sidan om den står K2 Working Papers i vilket PM och motsvarande ges ut.

Här hittar du också utöver detta rapporter vi gett ut i samverkan med andra aktörer, samt utvärderingsrapporter och motsvarande. Vi publicerar också våra publicerade vetenskapliga artiklar här, ibland i nedladdningsbar pdf och ibland med länk. Vissa gånger går det endast att läsa en sammanfattning av artikeln, om du inte är inloggad i databasen. Detta beror på upphovsrättsrätten och är tyvärr inget vi kan påverka.
 

Läs mer om vår publiceringspolicy som bland annat beskriver vår granskningsprocess för våra rapporter: PDF iconpubliceringspolicy_k2.pdf

K2-rapporter

The impact on bus ridership of passenger incentive contracts in Swedish public transport

Andreas Vigren, Roger Pyddoke, K2 Working Papers 2019:3
Over the years, passenger incentives have increasingly been used in Swedish public bus transport to increase ridership by introducing passenger incentive contracts. In those contracts, operator revenue comprises production-related revenue and a per-passenger–based incentive payment. In 2015, half of all active contracts were of this type, but there are few evaluations on whether the contract type increases ridership. Using rich passenger data, this paper analyses whether the ridership increase in the Skåne region can be attributed to the introduction of this contract type. The results cannot prove that passenger incentive contracts have increased ridership more than traditional gross-cost contracts. This is probably because both the per-passenger payment and operator freedom to adjust traffic provision are too low. While simulation studies have previously shown that higher payments and freedoms would increase bus ridership, it is unclear whether public transport authorities should leave the freedom to adjust traffic provision to operators, given the authorities’ social welfare responsibility. Instead, factors outside the contract, such as car-restricting measures and improved bus road space, might be more effective in increasing the number of passengers.
K2-rapporter

Marknader och kollektivtrafik - En litteraturöversikt av teorier och begrepp

Malin McGlinn, Alexander Paulsson, Stig Westerdahl och Anders Wretstrand, K2 Working Papers 2019:2
Denna litteraturstudie är kopplad till ett forskningsprojekt som handlar om kollektivtrafikens marknader i Sverige. När en ny kollektivtrafiklag trädde i kraft 2012 var syftet att vidga utbudet av aktörer på kollektivtrafikmarknaderna, stärka konkurrensen samt öka andelen resenärer som åker kollektivt. De regionala kollektivtrafikmyndigheterna (RKM) fick i uppdrag att upprätta marknadsanalyser samt definiera och besluta om allmän trafikplikt. Utifrån detta upphandlas sedan trafiken. Tidigare omfattande forskning om upphandling av kollektivtrafik har främst berört kontrakt och upphandling utifrån kontraktsekonomi och kontraktsdesign. De utomkontraktsliga faktorer som formar kontrakten på en marknad har däremot inte studerats Med inspiration från ny ekonomisk sociologi och organisationsteori kommer denna litteraturstudie att kartlägga vilka teoretiska begrepp och ramverk som kan användas för att förstå och förklara hur kollektivtrafiken i Sverige fungerar. Ny ekonomisk sociologi och organisationsteori kan bidra med nya perspektiv på hur dessa marknader fungerar då de blottlägger de utbyten och relationer som kringgärdar och i praktiken formar avtalen. I dessa processer är standarder och standardiseringsprocesser centrala eftersom de tydliggör och fördelar risk mellan parterna. Likaså är de olika aktörernas kalkylativa praktiker viktiga för att förstå hur anbuden formar marknaden, samt hur marknadsmisslyckanden påverkar kollektivtrafikmarknadens organisering. Med stöd i valda delar av nämnda teorier kan, innovativ och nyttig kunskap genereras om hur kollektivtrafikmarknaderna i Sverige fungerar. Förutom att bidra till att höja kunskapsnivån i branschen, är målet på sikt är att kunna ge förslag på hur nya arbetssätt och metoder skulle kunna utvecklas.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

How May Public Transport Influence the Practice of Everyday Life among Younger and Older People and How May Their Practices Influence Public Transport?

Lena Levin in Social Sciences vol. 8 issue 3, March 2019
This paper examines public transport use through the lens of practice to understand the perspectives of two categories of public transport users: Younger and older people. In taking this approach, we assume that the forms of mobility in a society are dependent on citizens’ everyday practices and on the structures of the cities, landscapes, etc. Transport needs and accessibility may vary depending on contexts (i.e., where and how we live) and on the various resources of groups of citizens. Results indicated that younger people are repeatedly referred to public transport to meet their mobility needs, while older people are more often car-dependent. Local variations, among both younger and older people, indicate higher confidence in public transport in big and medium-sized cities and a greater desire for car ownership in small cities. For the transition to sustainable mobility, e.g., public transport, transport associations and local governments should be responsive to the practice of everyday life among citizens: e.g., younger people’s leisure activities in afternoons and weekends, and older people’s wish for accessible transport service outside the dominant flow of passengers and their daily commuting practice. The data come from Sweden, specifically from focus groups with teenagers aged 14–16 years and retired people aged 63–97 years.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Urban Transport and Eco-Urbanism: A Global Comparative Study of Cities with a Special Focus on Five Larger Swedish Urban Regions

Jeffrey Kennworthy, Urban Sci. 2019, 3(1)
Urban transport is critical in shaping the form and function of cities, particularly the level of automobile dependence and sustainability. This paper presents a detailed study of the urban transport eco-urbanism characteristics of the Stockholm, Malmö, Göteborg, Linköping, and Helsingborg urban regions in southern Sweden. It compares these cities to those in the USA, Australia, Canada, and two large wealthy Asian cities (Singapore and Hong Kong). It finds that while density is critical in determining many features of eco-urbanism, especially mobility patterns and particularly how much public transport, walking, and cycling are used, Swedish cities maintain healthy levels of all these more sustainable modes and only moderate levels of car use, while having less than half the density of other European cities. Swedish settlement patterns and urban transport policies mean they also enjoy, globally, the lowest level of transport emissions and transport deaths per capita and similar levels of energy use in private passenger transport as other European cities, and a fraction of that used in lower density North American and Australian cities. Swedish urban public transport systems are generally well provided for and form an integral part of the way their cities function, considering their lower densities. Their use of walking and cycling is high, though not as high as in other European cities and together with public transport cater for nearly 50% of the total daily trip making, compared to auto-dependent regions with between about 75% and 85% car trips. The paper explores these and other patterns in some detail. It provides a clear depiction of the strengths and weaknesses of Swedish cities in urban transport, some key policy directions to improve them and posits possible explanations for some of the atypical patterns observed
Övrigt

Integrating Gender into Transport Planning

Autors: Christina Scholten et al, Springer 2019
This edited collection brings together feminist research on transport and planning from different epistemologies, with the intention to contribute to a more holistic transport planning practice. With a feminist perspective on transport policy and planning, the volume insists on the political character of transport planning and policy, and challenges gender-blindness in a policy area that impacts the everyday lives of women, men, girls, and boys. The chapters discuss everyday mobility as an embodied and situated activity in both conceptual and theoretical ways and suggest practical tools for change. The contributions of this collection are threefold: integrating gender research and transport planning, combining quantitative and qualitative gender research perspectives and methods, and highlighting the need to acknowledge the politicization of transport planning and transport practice.
K2-rapporter

Sustainable Mobility in Swedish Cities

Jeff Kenworthy, K2 Working Papers 2019:1.
This final report presents the results of 124 urban transport related indicators for 2015 for Sweden’s five most populous urban regions and compares them with each other and against cities in the USA, Australia, Canada, Europe and two large cities in Asia (Singapore and Hong Kong). Results indicate that Swedish cities are atypically low in density, and high in roads and freeways compared to most other European cities. Partly resulting from these conditions, Swedish cities on average have much lower public transport boardings than typical European cities (roughly half), but at the same time they are much better than in the more auto-dependent regions in the USA, Australia and Canada where densities are also low. Notwithstanding their moderate public transport use, their normalised farebox and operating costs data are relatively similar to the other cities in the study. Public transport use measured by passenger kilometres is closer to European levels due to the longer distances travelled by public transport in Swedish cities. Modal split of daily trips is also just under 50% for public transport, walking and cycling combined, meaning that modal share in these five Swedish urban regions is pivoted rather equitably between the more sustainable and less sustainable modes. Car use per person (vehicle kilometres) is only a little higher in the Swedish cities and passenger kilometres per person in cars are about the same compared to typical European cities. The percentage of total motorised passenger kilometres accounted for by public transport is much higher than in the USA, Canada and Australia, but less than in other European and in Asia cities. Energy use in private motorised passenger transport is, due to comparable car use levels, like that in other European cities and very much lower than in the auto-cities of North America and Australia. The Swedish cities excel in their extremely low transport emissions per capita and low spatial intensity of emissions (per hectare) compared to every other region in the world and even the worst Swedish cities are better than the best of the other cities. Likewise, in transport fatalities, Swedish cities are the lowest in the world. Some factors that seem to contribute to the above sometimes paradoxical situations are that: a. Swedish cities have significantly lower car ownership than might be expected, lower even than other European cities and average wealth levels in 2015, as measured by metropolitan GDP are below typical European levels (though comparable to 2005/6 levels Australian and Canadian cities). b. These five Swedish cities have comparatively low parking supply in their CBDs and a relatively high proportion of metropolitan jobs located in the CBDs, which assists public transport in the journey-to-work. c. despite low densities, Swedish cities have developed relatively well-performing and more extensive public transport systems than many comparable lower density cities – they have healthy levels of service in terms of seat kilometres per capita, only eclipsed by other European cities and the Asian cities. However, seat occupancy is comparatively low, indicating generous levels of spare capacity that could be utilised through better urban planning to create back-loading of passengers. d. Swedish cities have the highest level of public transport line length per persons, as well as high levels of reserved public transport route per person, although they are also well-endowed with freeways, which tends to undercut this advantage. e. average operating speeds for public transport in Sweden seem to be higher than most other cities and public transport overall enjoys a modest speed advantage over car speeds. f. Swedish cities spend relatively generous amounts of money operating their public transport systems, on average about 1.34% of their local GDPs, which significantly exceeds that of the auto-dependent regions, and is close to the other European cities (1.50%). g. cost recovery from fares of public transport operating costs is on average a bit less than 50% and less on average that the other global cities. This may be partly indicative of a recognition in Sweden of the proven value of public transport systems in helping to create urban regions that are only moderately car dependent by developed world standards, despite lower densities, because farebox recovery takes no account of public transport’s broader economic benefits and h. Swedish cities have significant areas of urban fabric that are supportive of non-motorised modes and where walking and cycling is high, leading to over 27% of daily trips in Swedish cities by these modes, despite a very cold climate. Three key weaknesses that have emerged in Swedish cities are: (a) their overall low density that would benefit from targeted increases in higher density development, especially linked to expanded and improved public transport, especially rail. Stockholm is by far the best of the Swedish cities in sustainable transport and although it is still overall a relatively low-density region, it is bound together by strong urban rail networks around which very high density, mixed use centres have been built; (b) the need to restrict further development of already abundant freeway systems in all five of the Swedish cities and (c) an over-reliance on bus systems and the need for more extensive urban rail networks. A major difference between Swedish and European cities generally is that European cities have three times higher rail use and this is a critical distinguishing feature in the lower public transport use in Swedish cities.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Mobility as a service: Comparing developments in Sweden and Finland

Göran Smith, Jana Sochor, Steven Sarasini, Research in Transportation Business & Management, June 2018
Mobility as a Service (MaaS) developments have thus far progressed along different trajectories in Sweden and Finland, two pioneering countries in MaaS. Still, little is known about why this is. Addressing this knowledge gap, we investigate the role of institutions as key structures given their capacity to bring about differentiated outcomes. Based on 31 interviews with key stakeholders, we first describe drivers and barriers of MaaS developments in the two countries. Thereafter, through an analysis of similarities and differences across the cases, we identify a set of general implications for MaaS policymakers and practitioners. Developments in Finland demonstrate the importance of top-level support, of inter-organizational collaboration and of trust among key stakeholders. The Swedish case reiterates the need for inter-sectorial collaboration, particularly with regard to creating the right conditions for commercialization, and to involving stakeholders on both strategic and operational levels of the transport sector in developing the vision for MaaS. Lastly, we assess the utility of the applied theoretical framework, and comment on the necessity of recognizing that both practice-based and structural changes are needed in order to facilitate institutional change.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Networked authority and regionalised governance: Public transport, a hierarchy of documents and the anti-hierarchy of authorship

Alexander Paulsson, Karolina Isaksson, Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space, Dec 2018
This paper is concerned with the authority of written documents and how these artefacts work as governance devices. Networked authority is introduced as a concept to elucidate how documents accumulate formal power in a collaborative process, where several formally independent but informally interdependent organisations together point out the direction of regional public transport planning in the form of one strategic document. Drawing upon recent research on bureaucracy, authority and documents, the paper empirically explores these connections in the context of public transport in Stockholm, Sweden. Based on this case study, authority was found to be accomplished as the written document reproduced an existing hierarchy of documents, through an anti-hierarchical process where the newly formed Regional Public Transport Authority involved several formally independent but informally interdependent organisations, and by lacking a sole author. These three features are crucial for understanding how a collaborative process erodes individuality and personal responsibility, while producing anonymous, networked authority. These results are discussed in relationship to Foucault’s notion of authorship, the author-function, which is derived from legal–institutional networks, much like networked authority. Understanding how networked authority is accomplished through a hierarchy of documents and an anti-hierarchy of authorship contributes with new knowledge on documents and how these work as governance devices in regional governance.
Övrigt

Laddsträcka i Lund - En studie av busslinje i körsimulator

Arne Nåbo, Conny Börjesson, Laban Källgren, Joakim Nyman, Christina Stave, VTI notat 8-2018
År 2018 träder klimatlagen i kraft. Till år 2030 ska klimatpåverkan i transportsektorn ha minskat med 70 procent jämfört med år 2010 och år 2045 ska Sveriges klimatpåverkan vara netto noll. Det innebär en fundamental omställning av energiförsörjningen av vägtransporter och fordonsflottan. För bussar i stadstrafik ser man gärna en elektrifiering då elbussar både är avgasfria och tysta, vilket ger en mindre miljöpåverkan på gaturummet och det då finns möjlighet att även skapa attraktiva busslinjer. För att exemplifiera hur en elektrifiering av buss kan göras gjordes en studie i körsimulator där en möjlig elbusslinje i Lund som använder elväg studerades. Elektrifieringens mål var att nå en hög användarvänlighet och uppfylla framtidens krav på miljö- och energianpassning. Med hjälp av olika informationskällor om elbussar, elvägsteknik och Lunds stadsmiljö skapades virtuella modeller av dessa.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

What’s mode got to do with it? Exploring the links between public transport and car access and opportunities for everyday activities among older people

Jean Ryan, K2, Lund University & Anders Wretstrand, Lund University. January 2019
The paper "What’s mode got to do with it? Exploring the links between public transport and car access and opportunities for everyday activities among older people" by K2 researcher Jean Ryan explores the links between modal options and opportunities to participate in everyday activities among people aged 65–79 and living in Sweden’s large metropolitan regions, Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö. This incorporated a specific focus on those considered at a greater risk of transport-related social exclusion. Read the article here:
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Outcomes from new contracts with “strong” incentives for increasing ridership in bus transport in Stockholm

Roger Pyddoke, K2, VTI & Hanna Lindgren, Transportstyrelsen. Research in Transportation Economics Volume 69, September 2018, Pages 197-206
The Swedish Public Transport Association has adopted recommendations on incentives for increased ridership in tendered contracts, though there is little evidence on how public transport contracts should be designed to reach this goal. This study begins amassing the needed evidence by analyzing the performance of four Stockholm Region bus contracts spanning seven years, examining the new E20 contracts intended to increase ridership, customer satisfaction, and efficiency. These contracts employ 100 percent of payments to operators depending on the number of boarding and paying passengers. Using mostly monthly data, outcomes in E20-contracts in four areas (formerly governed by gross cost contracts) over three years are compared with outcomes in the years before the E20 contracts were implemented, and with two gross contracts running parallel to the E20 contract. Compared with gross cost operators in comparison areas, E20 operators performed better in terms of costs, customer satisfaction (initially worse but then better), punctuality, and canceled departures, but worse in number of departures and no better in number of passengers. Read the article here:
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Evaluation of cost drivers within public bus transports in Sweden

Helene Lidestam K2, Carolina Camén, Björn Lidestam. Research in Transportation Economics Volume 69, September 2018, Pages 157-164
The supply of public transport in Sweden has been continuously increasing and as a consequence thereof, the cost for bus traffic has also increased. However, many indicators show that costs for public transports in Sweden in recent years have increased more than supply. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to test and evaluate the importance of the nine previously identified cost drivers (Camén & Lidestam, 2016) of public bus transports in Sweden. A mixed-method design, which included both focus groups and a questionnaire, was used. The questionnaire, with quantitative rating scales, was sent to representatives from the bus operators and from the Public Transport Authorities (PTAs). In the focus groups, industry associations, consultants, and politicians also participated. The results reveal what the dominating cost factors are, as well as the factors considered to be the most important, according to actors within the Swedish bus transport sector. The most important cost driver identified is peak traffic and the costs of its consequences. Read the article here:

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