K2 ger ut rapporter av olika slag. K2 Outreach är vår serie för populärvetenskapliga sammanfattningar med branschen som målgrupp. K2 Research är vår serie för vetenskapliga rapporter och vid sidan om den står K2 Working Papers i vilket PM och motsvarande ges ut.

Här hittar du också utöver detta rapporter vi gett ut i samverkan med andra aktörer, samt utvärderingsrapporter och motsvarande. Vi publicerar också våra publicerade vetenskapliga artiklar här, ibland i nedladdningsbar pdf och ibland med länk. Vissa gånger går det endast att läsa en sammanfattning av artikeln, om du inte är inloggad i databasen. Detta beror på upphovsrättsrätten och är tyvärr inget vi kan påverka.

Läs mer om vår publiceringspolicy som bland annat beskriver vår granskningsprocess för våra rapporter: PDF iconpubliceringspolicy_k2.pdf


Penalties as incentives for punctuality and regularity in tendered Swedish public transport

Roger Pyddoke K2 Working Paper 2019:6
Swedish public transport authorities emphasize that quality of service and customer satisfaction are important goals. For this purpose, tendered public transport contracts are frequently given quality incentives in the form penalties for failure to deliver desired quality. This paper studies penalty design for cancellations and delays, stated design motivations, performance monitoring and consistency in charging of penalties. The study also presents some evidence on how outcomes have evolved. Two main design forms are found, either charges for individual deviations or for deviations from an aggregate target level. Little motivation is found in the form of narrated or documented experience of penalty design and the outcomes the design of particular incentives. Deviations are monitored regularly by contract managers, based on computerized data capture. There appears to be no records of charging in the form of data series making it possible to trace the chain from outcomes to reductions in invoices. There are indications of non-negligible exemptions from charges attributed to factors beyond the control of operators. The current level of delivered departures is high and for both RPTAs but shows no trend. The aggregate level punctuality appears to be decreasing at both the RPTAs, but only statistically significant for one. The picture is complicated by the fact that punctuality develops differently in different parts of the region. This suggests that recent adjustments in the design of penalties may have had little impact on these quality dimensions.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Monitoring finer-scale population density in urban functional zones: A remote sensing data fusion approach

Jinchao Song, Xiaoye Tong, Lizhe Wang, Chunli Zhao, Alexander V. Prishchepov, Landscape and Urban Planning May 2019
Spatial distribution information on population density is essential for understanding urban dynamics. In recent decades, remote sensing techniques have often been applied to assess population density, particularly night-time light data (NTL). However, such attempts have resulted in mapped population density at coarse/medium resolution, which often limits the applicability of such data for fine-scale territorial planning. The improved quality and availability of multi-source remote sensing imagery and location-based service data (LBS) (from mobile networks or social media) offers new potential for providing more accurate population information at the micro-scale level. In this paper, we developed a fine-scale population distribution mapping approach by combining the functional zones (FZ) mapped with high-resolution satellite images, NTL data, and LBS data. Considering the possible variations in the relationship between population distribution and nightlight brightness in functional zones, we tested and found spatial heterogeneity of the relationship between NTL and the population density of LBS samples. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) was thus implemented to test potential improvements to the mapping accuracy. The performance of the following four models was evaluated: only ordinary least squares regression (OLS), only GWR, OLS with functional zones (OLS&FZ) and GWR with functional zones (GWR&FZ). The results showed that NTL-based GWR&FZ was the most accurate and robust approach, with an accuracy of 0.71, while the mapped population density was at a unit of 30 m spatial resolution. The detailed population density maps developed in our approach can contribute to fine-scale urban planning, healthcare and emergency responses in many parts of the world.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Mapping spatio-temporal patterns and detecting the factors of traffic

Jinchao Song, Chunli Zhao, Shaopeng Zhong, Thomas Alexander Sick Nielsen, Alexander V. Prishchepov, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 77, September 2019
The study focuses on mapping spatiotemporal patterns and detecting the potential drivers of traffic congestion with multi-source data. First, based on real-time traffic data retrieved from an online map, the k-means clustering algorithm was applied to classify the spatiotemporal distribution of congested roads. Then, we applied a geographical detector (Geo-detector) to mine the potential factors for each spatiotemporal pattern. The results showed six congestion patterns for intra-regional roads and inter-regional roads on weekdays. On both intraregional and inter-regional roads, congestion density reflected by building height was the strongest indicator during the morning peak period. Public facilities such as hospitals, tourist sites and green spaces located near areas of employment or residential areas contributed to congestion during and off-peak hours. On intra-regional roads, the sparse road network and greater distance from the city center contribute to congestion during peak hours. On inter-regional roads, the number of bus stops contributed most to the early evening peak congestion, while the design of the entrances to large buildings in mixed business areas and public service areas increased the level of congestion. The results suggest that land use should be more mixed in high-density areas as this would reduce the number of trips made to the city center. However, mixed land-use planning should also be combined with a detailed design of the microenvironment to improve accessibility for different travel modes in order to increase the efficiency of traffic and reduce congestion. The innovative approach can be potentially applied in traffic congestion and land use planning studies elsewhere based on real-time multi-source data.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Disparities in mobility among older people: Findings from a capability-based travel survey

Jean Ryan, Anders Wretstrand and Steven M Schmidt, July 2019
Despite some incremental policy shifts accounting for transport equity concerns, the norms within which transport systems worldwide currently function are still implicitly exclusive. Older people constitute a group which is particularly susceptible to issues within the transport system. However, this susceptibility is not evenly distributed, partly due to the considerable heterogeneity in circumstances among this group. The aim of this study is to advance the methods informing the transport equity policy agenda by conducting an empirical investigation of disparities in capabilities based on Sen's Capability Approach. This is done by identifying which resources and characteristics among those aged 65–79 are associated with fewer opportunities relative to their peers. By focusing on capabilities (instead of proxies), the disparities reflecting equity concerns can be more clearly depicted. The research material comprises 1149 interviews with those living in Sweden's large metropolitan regions: Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö. Several analyses were developed in order to address the research questions: a multivariate multinomial logistic regression, multivariate binary logistic regressions and a basic analysis of frequencies. Clear links were identified between social resources, holding a driving license, access to public transport, income, health condition and age and capabilities. These results call for a greater focus on capabilities in travel surveys and a more fine-grained approach to equity analyses and policies by accounting for intersectionality effects. As such, more targeted and holistic policy measures can be developed.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Preferences in regional public transport: a literature review

Joel Hansson, Fredrik Pettersson, Helena Svensson and Anders Wretstrand, European Transport Research Review, July 2019
The purpose of this article is to analyse quality attributes of regional public transport and their influence on modal choice, demand, and customer satisfaction through a literature review. The review is based on a working definition of regional public transport with boundaries toward local as well as interregional public transport: Regional public transport (i) targets passengers travelling between separate urban areas or to rural areas and (ii) a majority of the trips are made on a regular basis. Our results suggest that preferences of regional travellers mainly conform to the preferences of local travellers, but some important differences have been revealed. Most notably, on-board comfort is a higher priority for regional travellers and is increasingly important with longer travel times. Network coverage and coordination are also more prominent features of regional public transport, presumably due to the more dispersed nature of regional public transport networks. These differences, and the fact that the prerequisites for regional public transport are in general substantially different compared to local and interregional public transport, support continued use of this categorisation in public transport research. We also conclude that there is a requirement for more knowledge about the specifics of regional public transport, as public transport research, thus far, has been largely focused on local travel. Research areas of particular interest are on-board comfort, operational aspects, travel time improvements, how the environmental impact of public transport services affects modal choice, and the influence of trip length on passenger preferences.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Rischi di segregazione temporale nella città poliritmica: il caso della mobilità notturna delle donne tra nuove esigenze di spostamento e percezione della sicurezza

Chiara Vitrano, Monica Ferrario and Matteo Colleoni, Bolletino della societa geografica Italiana, July 2017
In the contemporary city, access to urban opportunities requires the possession, by the social actor, of more resources useful to manage the de-synchronization of social times. The capacity to be mobile and to access urban opportunities is hindered by the necessity to perform less predictable, multidirectional and 24/7 mobilities. In particular, the process of colonization of time, which brings to the progressive extension of working activities in the night, generates a potential risk of temporal disadvantage for those working and moving at night, and especially for women. Data from the Italian Labour Force Survey by Istat show how, between 2005 and 2015, female night-workers increased by 18% versus a decrease of 8% of male night-workers (which are anyway the majority). Furthermore, research show how women are more and more interested in night-time leisure activities. The lower sense of safety experienced by women during night-time transfers emerges as a crucial factor in limiting their social participation and in shaping forms of spatio-temporal inequality. The paper, through the elaboration and analysis of data collected during a survey in the city of Milan, which was answered by about 100 women, aims at understanding the features of women’s night-time mobility, focusing on the activities performed, the modal choices and the perception of safety.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Disturbance Management and Information Availability in Public Transport, with Focus on Scania County, Sweden

Åsa Jevinger and Jan Persson, Urban and Transit Planning July 2019
In order for people to choose public transport over private car usage, public transport systems must be both reliable and accessible, which is not always the case today. Based on interviews with public transport actors, this paper investigates the missing information and communication flows during unplanned disturbances in the public transport system of southern Sweden. Two potential solution approaches to supply the missing information are also identified: an information system common for all public transport actors in the region, and a traveler check-in system, providing traveler specific information to the actors. The information requirements of both systems, and their potential benefits, are presented. The primary objective of the study is to improve the possibilities for both actors and travelers to act during unplanned disturbances by more efficient information sharing and better traveler information.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Perceived action spaces for public actors in the development of Mobility as a Service

Dalia Mukhtar-Landgren and Göran Smith, European Transport Research Review 2019
The public sector is showing increased interest in Mobility as a Service (MaaS), as its introduction and market penetration is proposed to potentially disrupt the personal transport system. However, involved public actors are approaching MaaS very differently. This paper applies a neo-institutional perspective to study the activities of public actors in the ongoing development of MaaS in Finland and Sweden. To this end, it maps what policy instruments public actors are applying to govern the processes and discusses how this might relate to their perceived action spaces and roles. The contribution to the MaaS literature is twofold. Firstly, the analysis shows that public actors are applying a wide range of both hard and soft policy instruments in order to gove rn the development of MaaS. Secondly, a comparison across Finland and Sweden suggests that the perceived action spaces and the roles taken by public actors on regional and local levels are influenced by the activities of public actors on state-level. The paper concludes that public actors and pol icy instruments should not be studied in isolation. Rather, perceived action spaces and roles need to be analyzed in a mul ti-level setting, where processes of enabling and promoting can vary between societal levels, and where the roles of the public sector are negotiated not only between public and private actors, but also between different public actors.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Cars. Problematisations, measures and blind spots in local transport and land use policy

Robert Hrelja, Land Use Policy, vol. 87
Goals concerning reduced car traffic are found in most European cities, indicating a potential change in local transport policy and land use planning, which have traditionally been very car-centric. This paper analyses goals and measures to reduce car traffic in Swedish municipalities’ long-term transport and land use plans. Theoretically, the paper is based on an understanding of policies as parts of ‘problem representations’ that create particular ways of understanding car traffic as a policy problem, which in turn influence the measures seen as appropriate or inappropriate. The results indicate that changes are underway. At the heart of these changes are narratives about city development in which municipalities understand the ‘attractive city’ as one where cars are defined as a problem to be addressed. However, the dominant policy problematisation produce several ‘blind spots’. Regional car trips, including travel to out-of-town shopping areas, are left unproblematised in this representation of the problem, meaning that measures addressing such trips are ignored in policy making. The paper builds our understanding of how policy practices influence the potential for change towards sustainability by discussing whether municipalities are doing enough to address the big problems with cars.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Evaluation of free public transport for older people in Sweden

Tania Dukic Willstrand, Per Henriksson, Helena Svensson and Lena Levin, Proceedings of the 6th Humanist Conference, The Hague, Netherlands, 13-14 June 2018
Older citizens safe mobility is an issue as the number of older people is growing and expect to live longer than previous generations . To keep their independence and to allow them to take part in the society, transport accessibility is an issue to be solved. The present study developed a survey to evaluate a subsidised public transport card for older citizens in the western part of Sweden and how the physical health contributes to the use of public transport . A questionnaire was sent to 1500 older citizens in three municipalities to examine how this measure influenced their travel patterns and whether this is an efficient measure to increase their use of public transport . Results show a significant effect of the senior card which vary depending on the municipality and incomes. Some older citizens increased travelling with public transport ( PT ), they changed the time of the day for some activities and to some extend prioritized PT in another way than before they got the subsidised card . The senior card contributed to shift travel mode choice from private car to PT but also from cycling /walking to PT. To reach a sustainable safe mobility for older citizens, a discussion is on going to find and target measures to this broad group of individuals. Health and environment goals need to be considered to reach the desired results.

Kollektivtrafik i storstadens skugga - Krönikor från Living lab i Uddevalla

Karin Book och Stig Westerdahl (redaktörer)
Uddevalla är en kommun med många trafikutmaningar. Det finns en lång rad frågor att ta tag i för att få en attraktiv och välfungerande trafiksituation, med hållbara transporter snarare än bilen i fokus. Detta är nödvändigt inför framtiden. Och Uddevalla är inte alls unikt, denna skrift drivs av övertygelsen att det finns lärdomar härifrån som är giltiga i många andra städer bortom de stora metropolerna. Denna skrift innehåller ett antal korta texter som summerar resultaten från forsknings- och samverkansprojektet Living lab Uddevalla med syftet att utforska, problematisera och peka på utvecklingsriktningar för kollektivtrafiken i Uddevalla. Vi hoppas att skriften ska kunna inspirera också läsare som verkar i andra städer med liknande förutsättningar.

An international review of experiences from on-demand public transport services

Fredrik Pettersson K2 Working Paper 2019:5
The aim of this report is to contribute to develop knowledge about what the developments in positioning and smartphone technology bring to the table for the public transport sector. The overarching question in the report is: can new technology improve demandresponsive transport (DRT)? The cases analysed in this report were selected using a number of criteria to delimit the sample and distinguish the cases from “traditional” DRT and from ride-hailing services. A total of 35 different services were identified that met the criteria for what this report refers to as on-demand public transport. The identified cases are located in nine different countries and 23 different cities or regions, and includes services that have been or are operating in major urban areas, smaller towns, suburbs, semi-rural and rural areas. Nine services, most of which are subsidised by the public sector, have been analysed in more detail. The comparison of the cases reveal differences and similarities concerning aspects such as vehicles and fleet sizes, and service partnerships. Different variants are also described regarding operational policies of the services. This includes origin-destination policies, areas covered by the services, where to pick up and drop off passengers, operating hours, booking method, time of booking, payment and pricing. For the nine cases that are the focus of the report a comparison of patronage, productivity and production costs are also made. A main conclusion from this part of the study is that so far there is scant evidence that new technology improves the productivity of DRT. This suggests that new technology is no panacea for fixing the problems of DRT and the study shows that thus far, at least, on-demand public transport hardly represents a transport revolution.

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