Publikationer

K2 ger ut rapporter av olika slag. K2 Outreach är vår serie för populärvetenskapliga sammanfattningar med branschen som målgrupp. K2 Research är vår serie för vetenskapliga rapporter och vid sidan om den står K2 Working Papers i vilket PM och motsvarande ges ut.

Här hittar du också utöver detta rapporter vi gett ut i samverkan med andra aktörer, samt utvärderingsrapporter och motsvarande. Vi publicerar också våra publicerade vetenskapliga artiklar här, ibland i nedladdningsbar pdf och ibland med länk. Vissa gånger går det endast att läsa en sammanfattning av artikeln, om du inte är inloggad i databasen. Detta beror på upphovsrättsrätten och är tyvärr inget vi kan påverka.
 

Läs mer om vår publiceringspolicy som bland annat beskriver vår granskningsprocess för våra rapporter: PDF iconpubliceringspolicy_k2.pdf

Vetenskapliga artiklar

Public transport regimes and mobility as a service: Governance approaches in Amsterdam, Birmingham, and Helsinki

Fabio Hirschhorn, Alexander Paulsson, Claus H. Sørensen and Wijnand Veeneman, ScienceDirect, December 2019
This paper examines governance responses to Mobility as a Service (MaaS). The analysis focuses on the interactions between public transport systems and MaaS developments in Amsterdam, Birmingham, and Helsinki. Case comparison is informed by the multilevel perspective on socio-technical transitions and literature on meta-governance of networks. Drawing on these frameworks and empirical findings, the paper identifies six governance approaches to MaaS across cases: analyser, architect, convener, experimenter, lawmaker, and provider. These basic models encompass strategies ranging from hands-on strong intervention to information collection efforts. Consistent with the transitions literature, these six approaches indicate that public transport regimes seek to control the apparent disruptive potential of MaaS by incrementally absorbing innovations; to this end, regime actors adopt governance responses that tend to reproduce existing institutionalised ways of doing and prevailing logics. Furthermore, the six approaches reveal intense interaction between regime and niche, suggesting that a niche-regime space might have emerged in the cases; actors travel and operate across niche, regime, and niche-regimes, mainly driven by concerns with market share and revenue streams in the mobility system.
K2-rapporter

Implementering av bilfria distrikt

Till Koglin, Nina Vogel, Sonja Perander, Anders Larsson och Elizabeth Marcheschi, K2 Working paper 2019:8, september 2019
Rapporten består av en policy-analys gällande internationella, nationella, regionala och lokala (Malmö och Göteborg) policys som berör bilfria urbana distrikt eller implementering av sådana områden. Detta arbete är en del av projektet ”Bilfria urbana distrikt”, som är ett gemensamt forskningsprojekt mellan Lunds universitet, Sveriges landsbruksuniversitet (SLU) och Chalmers i Göteborg. Dokumenten som analyserats i denna studie kommer både från internationella aktörer, såsom Europeiska Uniounen, och nationella svenska aktörer som Boverket eller Trafikverket. Regionalt och lokalt begränsas analysen till Västra Götalandsregionen och Region Skåne, samt dokument från Malmö stad och Götegorgs stad. I analysen har det framkommit att det finns många aktörer och policys som påverkar implementeringen av bilfria urbana distrikt, vilka kan inverka såväl positivt som negativt på den vidare utvecklingen inom detta område. Dessutom visar denna studie att implementering av bilfria urban distrikt är ett mycket komplext ämne för kommunerna att hantera. För att lyckas med implementeringen behövs ett interdisciplinärt angreppssätt som involverar stads- och trafikplanerare, men även medborgare, politiker och näringsidkare. Faktorer som påverkar en lyckad implementering kan vara just att hela processen förankras i ett större sammanhang, det vill säga bland exempelvis boende, näringsidkare och politiker.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Contextualizing Policy: Understanding Implementation under Socio-technical Transitions

Claus Hedegaard Sørensen and Alexander Paulsson, International Journal of Public Administration, September 2019
Over the past 40 years, implementation of public policy has been developed into a mature but heterogenous field of research. Despite much attention paid to the context in which implementation occurs, studies thus far has only to a limited extent been concerned with how major socio-technological transitions affect the conditions for implementing policy. As societies experience major socio-technological transitions that radically change our ways of living and working, these changes also affect the implementation process. But how? This paper explores how theories of socio-technological changes can be drawn upon to add layers of explanations to a canonized model of integrated implementation. Recent technological developments in the transport sector are applied to this discussion to illustrate the usefulness of the suggested layered approach. The paper concludes by suggesting how the integrated implementation model and implementation theory can be combined.
K2-rapporter

Scenarier för ny mobilitet och samhällsplanering

Anna Pernestål och Erik Almlöf, K2 Working paper 2019:7
I detta dokument beskriver vi tre framtidsscenarier för utvecklingen av framtidens ”smarta mobilitet” där vi utforskar trender inom automation, digitalisering, elektrifiering och delning. Nya trender som kan ha stor påverkan på framtidens transportsystem, men som samtidigt innebär en stor osäkerhet. Bland annat när det gäller delning av transporter, arbetsplatser, bostäder och data. Det är just graden av delning som särskiljer våra scenarier åt: det ena kallar vi ”Individualism” och det andra kallar vi ”Delningsekonomi”. Scenarierna beskriver en tänkt värld omkring 10-20 år framåt, och den teknikutveckling som vi antar finns i scenarierna är beskriven i tabellen nedan. En extremt snabb utveckling av tekniken för självkörande fordon skulle kunna leda till en helt annan värld. Detta scenario – ”Disruptiv utveckling” – ser vi som ett ”wild card” och beskriver det sist. Scenarierna är extrema, och det är meningen. Syftet är inte att beskriva den mest troliga eller mest önskvärda framtiden, utan att de ska vara utmanande och bidra till en strategisk diskussion: ”hur ska vi agera i en sådan här framtid?”
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Accessibility for All in Public Transport and the Overlooked (Social) Dimension—A Case Study of Stockholm

Vanessa Stjernborg, Sustainability, September 2019
Sweden was early to develop legislation related to accessible public transport for disabled people in 1979 and can therefore be seen as a forerunner. However, recent findings reveal widespread barriers in the Swedish public transport system and large variations between different parts of the country. This paper draws on empirical material consisting of complaints regarding accessibility left by travellers in Stockholm to a local transit company and aims to provide an overview of the character of complaints and to identify common themes through a qualitative content analysis. The results show that the most commonly reported challenge relates to boarding or getting off the vehicles, where the drivers are mostly described as the underlying reason for those difficulties. The narratives describe how some drivers misuse (or do not use) the accessibility equipment or show an abusive or attitudinal behaviour. The results support the body of literature on the meaning of continuous work with accessibility issues in public transport. Varying views on disability may have had a substantial impact on the development of our societies and on how the issues of accessibility in the public transport system have been prioritised or handled. Thus, this study highlights existing social barriers and variations in individual capacities as important factors that influence the experiences of public transport users. The study recommends an increased focus on educating drivers and staff about how to accommodate different groups of travellers. The study also recommends that transport providers consider drivers’ working conditions (i.e., with the consideration of timetables and high time-pressure). Further research on how well accessibility adaptations in public transport actually work and how the users perceive them is necessary.
Övrigt

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Vetenskapliga artiklar

How to Integrate Gender Equality in the Future of “Smart” Mobility: A Matter for a Changing Planning Practice

Lena Levin, HCII: International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction July 2019
Sustainable transport is one of the key challenges of the UN and EU to ensure to meet society’s economic, social and environmental needs whilst minimising undesirable impacts. Sustainability planning may require changing the way we solve transportation problems. From the perspectives of the sustainability, we may assume that the emphasis should move in direction to changing the practice: but exactly what practice and who’s practices are to be changed? One way is to investigate gendered mobilities. The main differences in mobility patterns between women and men at a general level, are found in modal choice and travel distance. Women’s practices tend to be related to the most sustainable means of transport, while men’s practices are related to more un-sustainable transport. Relying on studies on transport planning including focus groups, interviews and workshops in Sweden, this paper ties the concepts of gender equality, to contemporary planning and sustainable “smart” mobility, and investigates in what way knowledge about gender equality is elaborated in regional planning practice. It appeared from the interviews that both gender equality and diversity were perceived as difficult in regional transport planning and that more knowledge and experience were needed. It was pointed out that there existed some knowledge but that there were no structures for how it could be incorporated into the planning process. Noticeable are conflicting practices, while policy on gender equality are attached to the planning there are still beliefs that transport planning can be gender neutral and free from social impacts. The smart mobility approach promises improvements of mobility and access opportunities for all.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Exploring the potential of using real-time traveler data in public transport disturbance management

Åse Jevinger and Jan Persson, Public Transport August 2019
New and emerging technologies, such as connected sensors, smartphones and smart cards, offer new possibilities to collect rich real-time information about travelers. Moreover, smartphones also enable travelers to actively share information, for instance, about their intended travel plans. This type of information can be used to improve public transport disturbance management. In this paper, the potential gain of collecting different types of information about travelers is explored to support action decisions made by public transport actors, during unplanned disturbances. Based on interviews and workshops, the paper provides a mapping between different information types and possible action decisions that can be supported. Furthermore, based on a literature review focused on current and potential technical solutions, a guidance to which solutions support which type of action decisions, is also provided. Amongst others, the results show that automated fare collection, which is one of the most commonly implemented systems providing real-time information about the traveler, can support a large number of action decisions relevant in unplanned disturbance scenarios. The technical solution providing the most extensive information, and thereby providing the best support for the action decisions, involves smartphone apps delivering user-generated information. The drawback with this solution is that it might violate privacy, and that it typically relies on the travelers providing relevant information voluntarily.
K2-rapporter

Penalties as incentives for punctuality and regularity in tendered Swedish public transport

Roger Pyddoke K2 Working Paper 2019:6
Swedish public transport authorities emphasize that quality of service and customer satisfaction are important goals. For this purpose, tendered public transport contracts are frequently given quality incentives in the form penalties for failure to deliver desired quality. This paper studies penalty design for cancellations and delays, stated design motivations, performance monitoring and consistency in charging of penalties. The study also presents some evidence on how outcomes have evolved. Two main design forms are found, either charges for individual deviations or for deviations from an aggregate target level. Little motivation is found in the form of narrated or documented experience of penalty design and the outcomes the design of particular incentives. Deviations are monitored regularly by contract managers, based on computerized data capture. There appears to be no records of charging in the form of data series making it possible to trace the chain from outcomes to reductions in invoices. There are indications of non-negligible exemptions from charges attributed to factors beyond the control of operators. The current level of delivered departures is high and for both RPTAs but shows no trend. The aggregate level punctuality appears to be decreasing at both the RPTAs, but only statistically significant for one. The picture is complicated by the fact that punctuality develops differently in different parts of the region. This suggests that recent adjustments in the design of penalties may have had little impact on these quality dimensions.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Monitoring finer-scale population density in urban functional zones: A remote sensing data fusion approach

Jinchao Song, Xiaoye Tong, Lizhe Wang, Chunli Zhao, Alexander V. Prishchepov, Landscape and Urban Planning May 2019
Spatial distribution information on population density is essential for understanding urban dynamics. In recent decades, remote sensing techniques have often been applied to assess population density, particularly night-time light data (NTL). However, such attempts have resulted in mapped population density at coarse/medium resolution, which often limits the applicability of such data for fine-scale territorial planning. The improved quality and availability of multi-source remote sensing imagery and location-based service data (LBS) (from mobile networks or social media) offers new potential for providing more accurate population information at the micro-scale level. In this paper, we developed a fine-scale population distribution mapping approach by combining the functional zones (FZ) mapped with high-resolution satellite images, NTL data, and LBS data. Considering the possible variations in the relationship between population distribution and nightlight brightness in functional zones, we tested and found spatial heterogeneity of the relationship between NTL and the population density of LBS samples. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) was thus implemented to test potential improvements to the mapping accuracy. The performance of the following four models was evaluated: only ordinary least squares regression (OLS), only GWR, OLS with functional zones (OLS&FZ) and GWR with functional zones (GWR&FZ). The results showed that NTL-based GWR&FZ was the most accurate and robust approach, with an accuracy of 0.71, while the mapped population density was at a unit of 30 m spatial resolution. The detailed population density maps developed in our approach can contribute to fine-scale urban planning, healthcare and emergency responses in many parts of the world.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Mapping spatio-temporal patterns and detecting the factors of traffic

Jinchao Song, Chunli Zhao, Shaopeng Zhong, Thomas Alexander Sick Nielsen, Alexander V. Prishchepov, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 77, September 2019
The study focuses on mapping spatiotemporal patterns and detecting the potential drivers of traffic congestion with multi-source data. First, based on real-time traffic data retrieved from an online map, the k-means clustering algorithm was applied to classify the spatiotemporal distribution of congested roads. Then, we applied a geographical detector (Geo-detector) to mine the potential factors for each spatiotemporal pattern. The results showed six congestion patterns for intra-regional roads and inter-regional roads on weekdays. On both intraregional and inter-regional roads, congestion density reflected by building height was the strongest indicator during the morning peak period. Public facilities such as hospitals, tourist sites and green spaces located near areas of employment or residential areas contributed to congestion during and off-peak hours. On intra-regional roads, the sparse road network and greater distance from the city center contribute to congestion during peak hours. On inter-regional roads, the number of bus stops contributed most to the early evening peak congestion, while the design of the entrances to large buildings in mixed business areas and public service areas increased the level of congestion. The results suggest that land use should be more mixed in high-density areas as this would reduce the number of trips made to the city center. However, mixed land-use planning should also be combined with a detailed design of the microenvironment to improve accessibility for different travel modes in order to increase the efficiency of traffic and reduce congestion. The innovative approach can be potentially applied in traffic congestion and land use planning studies elsewhere based on real-time multi-source data.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Disparities in mobility among older people: Findings from a capability-based travel survey

Jean Ryan, Anders Wretstrand and Steven M Schmidt, July 2019
Despite some incremental policy shifts accounting for transport equity concerns, the norms within which transport systems worldwide currently function are still implicitly exclusive. Older people constitute a group which is particularly susceptible to issues within the transport system. However, this susceptibility is not evenly distributed, partly due to the considerable heterogeneity in circumstances among this group. The aim of this study is to advance the methods informing the transport equity policy agenda by conducting an empirical investigation of disparities in capabilities based on Sen's Capability Approach. This is done by identifying which resources and characteristics among those aged 65–79 are associated with fewer opportunities relative to their peers. By focusing on capabilities (instead of proxies), the disparities reflecting equity concerns can be more clearly depicted. The research material comprises 1149 interviews with those living in Sweden's large metropolitan regions: Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö. Several analyses were developed in order to address the research questions: a multivariate multinomial logistic regression, multivariate binary logistic regressions and a basic analysis of frequencies. Clear links were identified between social resources, holding a driving license, access to public transport, income, health condition and age and capabilities. These results call for a greater focus on capabilities in travel surveys and a more fine-grained approach to equity analyses and policies by accounting for intersectionality effects. As such, more targeted and holistic policy measures can be developed.

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