Is climate morality the answer? Preconditions affecting the motivation to decrease private car use

Alfred Andersson, Transport Resarch, January 2020
Persuasive messages are commonly used in campaigns promoting sustainable transport to motivate people to reduce private car use. This paper explores the preconditions affecting the motivation of people to reduce private car use when exposed to such messages. A sample of 1100 Swedish residents was analysed for the effect of variables related to accessibility, usual commute mode and attitudes. Significant variables were used to create a precondition index, which was cross-tabulated with demographic variables and stages drawn from the transtheoretical model. The results show that there are differences in the preconditions regarding motivation to reduce private car use between segments of the population. Results indicate that climate morality is the most critical factor affecting motivation, specifically the motivation of persistent drivers. Usual commute mode, car advocacy, health concern, attitudes towards cycling, car identity and travel time also influence motivation. Males, the middle-aged, people with low educational attainment, and rural residents have the least favourable preconditions concerning motivation to reduce private car use.

Effects from usage of pre-trip information and passenger scheduling strategies on waiting times in public transport: an empirical survey based on a dedicated smartphone application

Ulrik Berggren, Karin Brundell-Freij, Helena Svensson & Anders Wretstrand , Public Transport, November 2019
Waiting times are important indicators of the degree of travel time optimisation and other behavioural traits among public transport (PT) passengers. As previous studies have shown, the level and usage of pre-trip information regarding schedule or real-time departures are important factors that influence the potential to realise travel time savings by enabling PT passengers to optimise waiting times. Most empirical evidence regarding the revealed PT travel behaviour concerning information levels is based on manual interviews or traditional travel surveys, in which there is a risk that the actual context of where and when the choice of departure time was made is not taken into account. This paper reports the results of a travel survey based on a dedicated smartphone application applied in a field study in a Swedish mid-size urban and regional context. Context-aware notification prompting was used to allow respondents to state their use of pre-trip information as well as whether they had pre-planned their trip and how contingent planning aids were used for time optimisation. The implications on passenger waiting times of the use of information regarding departure times by passengers were emphasised during analyses of the resulting data, along with personal characteristics, in which auxiliary sources such as timetable data and Automatic Vehicle Location were utilised to determine ground truth trip trajectories and trip-contextual factors. The results indicate the significance of having access to pre-trip information, especially for long trips above one hour’s duration, in order to pre-plan and thereby optimise waiting times. In addition, the use and source of pre-trip information differ among age and gender groups. Trip purpose and time of day to some extent determine waiting times and choice of trip optimisation strategy (arrival or departure time).

How to create efficient public transport systems? A systematic review of critical problems and approaches for addressing the problems

Hrelja, R., Khan, J. & Pettersson, F. Transport Policy, October 2019
Creating efficient public transport systems that attract users is a challenging task in contexts where the control of public transport is divided between various actors. Recent research on public transport has therefore seen increasing focus on issues like coordination, collaboration and steering in complex governance settings. However, more is known about what needs to be done than how to implement the necessary changes. This paper presents a systematic literature review with a focus on developing the understanding on how to improve the conditions for public transport. The reviewed articles are analysed for increasing the understanding of the critical challenges in the planning and implementation of measures to increase public transport travel; the working practices for dealing with problems described in the literature; and the advantages and disadvantages of different working practices. Based on the analysis an analytical framework is developed that can be used to study and evaluate working practices for managing critical challenges. The framework consists of three interconnected factors (i) actors, (ii) institutions (laws and rules that govern the interaction of the actors), and (iii) work processes (phases in the interaction between the actors). Drawing on the results of the systematic review a number of key issues for establishing working practices for dealing with the challenges are emphasized for each of the factors.

Why do cities invest in bus priority measures? Policy, polity, and politics in Stockholm and Copenhagen

Fredrik Pettersson and Claus Hedegaard Sørensen, Transport Policy, October 2019
Given the current attention on transport system related challenges concerning climate emissions, air pollution and congestion in cities, there are great aspirations to increase the volume and share of passengers using public transport. Among other things, this demands that services should be improved. One type of improvement is to increase the speed of buses and improve regularity. Doing so will make bus services more attractive, which in turn may help to increase public transport. In congested areas, speed and regularity may be improved through the implementation of measures such as bus lanes, signal priority at traffic lights, a reduction in the number of bus stops, and the re-designing of crossroads, etc., measures that are often framed within the term “bus priority measures”.

Development and implementation of Mobility-as-a-Service – A qualitative study of barriers and enabling factors

C. M. Karlsson, D. Mukhtar-Landgren, G. Smith, T. Koglin, A. Kronsell, E. Lund, S. Sarasini and J. Sochor, Transportation Research part A, September 2019
Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) has been argued as part of the solution to prevalent transport problems. However, progress from pilots to large-scale implementation has hitherto been slow. The aim of the research reported in this paper was to empirically and in-depth investigate how, and to what extent, different factors affect the development and implementation of MaaS. A framework was developed, with a basis in institutional theory and the postulation that formal as well informal factors on different analytical levels (macro, meso and micro) must be considered. The research was organised as a multiple case study in Finland and Sweden and a qualitative approach was chosen for data collection and analysis. A number of factors with a claimed impact on the development and implementation of MaaS was revealed. At the macro level, these factors included legislation concerning transport, innovation and public administration, and the presence (or not) of a shared vision for MaaS. At the meso level, (the lack of) appropriate business models, cultures of collaboration, and assumed roles and responsibilities within the MaaS ecosystem were identified as significant factors. At the micro level, people’s attitudes and habits were recognised as important factors to be considered. However, how the ‘S’ in MaaS fits (or not) the transport needs of the individual/household appears to play a more important role in adoption or rejection of MaaS than what has often been acknowledged in previous papers on MaaS. The findings presented in this paper provide several implications for public and private sector actors. Law-making authorities can facilitate MaaS developments by adjusting relevant regulations and policies such as transport-related subsidies, taxation policies and the definition of public transport. Regional and local authorities could additionally contribute to creating conducive conditions for MaaS by, for example, planning urban designs and transport infrastructures to support service-based travelling. Moreover, private actors have key roles to play in future MaaS developments, as both public and private transport services are needed if MaaS is to become a viable alternative to privately owned cars. Thus, the advance of MaaS business models that benefit all involved actors is vital for the prosperity of the emerging MaaS ecosystem.

Intermediary MaaS Integrators: A case study on hopes and fears

Göran Smith, Jana Sochor and I. C. MariAnne Karlsson, Transportation Research part A, September 2019
At present, many policymakers and practitioners are searching for actions that could facilitate Mobility as a Service (MaaS) developments. A potential action, which has received a lot of attention, is to introduce Intermediary MaaS Integrators; that is intermediate actors that assemble the offerings from Transport Service Providers (TSPs) and distribute these to MaaS Operators. However, little is known about if and how TSPs and MaaS Operators would appreciate the introduction of Intermediary MaaS Integrators. To address this knowledge gap, this paper explores an attempt to establish a national Intermediary MaaS Integrator in Sweden. The contribution to transportation research is twofold. Firstly, the paper advances the conceptual understanding of Intermediary MaaS Integrators by identifying four defining dimensions: Activities, Management, Processes and Context. Secondly, it deepens the knowledge of Intermediary MaaS Integrators’ value propositions by detailing TSPs’ and prospective MaaS Operators’ hopes and fears vis-à-vis them. Lastly, practical implications for how to facilitate acceptance and adoption are proposed. Intermediary MaaS Integrators should only be introduced if basic incentives for using their services are in place, and if introduced, they should preferably: go beyond offering technical services; have clear, declared objectives; be impartial and capable actors; and carefully consider their launch strategies.

Public transport regimes and mobility as a service: Governance approaches in Amsterdam, Birmingham, and Helsinki

Fabio Hirschhorn, Alexander Paulsson, Claus H. Sørensen and Wijnand Veeneman, Transportation Research part A, December 2019
This paper examines governance responses to Mobility as a Service (MaaS). The analysis focuses on the interactions between public transport systems and MaaS developments in Amsterdam, Birmingham, and Helsinki. Case comparison is informed by the multilevel perspective on socio-technical transitions and literature on meta-governance of networks. Drawing on these frameworks and empirical findings, the paper identifies six governance approaches to MaaS across cases: analyser, architect, convener, experimenter, lawmaker, and provider. These basic models encompass strategies ranging from hands-on strong intervention to information collection efforts. Consistent with the transitions literature, these six approaches indicate that public transport regimes seek to control the apparent disruptive potential of MaaS by incrementally absorbing innovations; to this end, regime actors adopt governance responses that tend to reproduce existing institutionalised ways of doing and prevailing logics. Furthermore, the six approaches reveal intense interaction between regime and niche, suggesting that a niche-regime space might have emerged in the cases; actors travel and operate across niche, regime, and niche-regimes, mainly driven by concerns with market share and revenue streams in the mobility system.

Contextualizing Policy: Understanding Implementation under Socio-technical Transitions

Claus Hedegaard Sørensen and Alexander Paulsson, International Journal of Public Administration, September 2019
Over the past 40 years, implementation of public policy has been developed into a mature but heterogenous field of research. Despite much attention paid to the context in which implementation occurs, studies thus far has only to a limited extent been concerned with how major socio-technological transitions affect the conditions for implementing policy. As societies experience major socio-technological transitions that radically change our ways of living and working, these changes also affect the implementation process. But how? This paper explores how theories of socio-technological changes can be drawn upon to add layers of explanations to a canonized model of integrated implementation. Recent technological developments in the transport sector are applied to this discussion to illustrate the usefulness of the suggested layered approach. The paper concludes by suggesting how the integrated implementation model and implementation theory can be combined.

Accessibility for All in Public Transport and the Overlooked (Social) Dimension—A Case Study of Stockholm

Vanessa Stjernborg, Sustainability, September 2019
Sweden was early to develop legislation related to accessible public transport for disabled people in 1979 and can therefore be seen as a forerunner. However, recent findings reveal widespread barriers in the Swedish public transport system and large variations between different parts of the country. This paper draws on empirical material consisting of complaints regarding accessibility left by travellers in Stockholm to a local transit company and aims to provide an overview of the character of complaints and to identify common themes through a qualitative content analysis. The results show that the most commonly reported challenge relates to boarding or getting off the vehicles, where the drivers are mostly described as the underlying reason for those difficulties. The narratives describe how some drivers misuse (or do not use) the accessibility equipment or show an abusive or attitudinal behaviour. The results support the body of literature on the meaning of continuous work with accessibility issues in public transport. Varying views on disability may have had a substantial impact on the development of our societies and on how the issues of accessibility in the public transport system have been prioritised or handled. Thus, this study highlights existing social barriers and variations in individual capacities as important factors that influence the experiences of public transport users. The study recommends an increased focus on educating drivers and staff about how to accommodate different groups of travellers. The study also recommends that transport providers consider drivers’ working conditions (i.e., with the consideration of timetables and high time-pressure). Further research on how well accessibility adaptations in public transport actually work and how the users perceive them is necessary.

How to Integrate Gender Equality in the Future of “Smart” Mobility: A Matter for a Changing Planning Practice

Lena Levin, HCII: International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction July 2019
Sustainable transport is one of the key challenges of the UN and EU to ensure to meet society’s economic, social and environmental needs whilst minimising undesirable impacts. Sustainability planning may require changing the way we solve transportation problems. From the perspectives of the sustainability, we may assume that the emphasis should move in direction to changing the practice: but exactly what practice and who’s practices are to be changed? One way is to investigate gendered mobilities. The main differences in mobility patterns between women and men at a general level, are found in modal choice and travel distance. Women’s practices tend to be related to the most sustainable means of transport, while men’s practices are related to more un-sustainable transport. Relying on studies on transport planning including focus groups, interviews and workshops in Sweden, this paper ties the concepts of gender equality, to contemporary planning and sustainable “smart” mobility, and investigates in what way knowledge about gender equality is elaborated in regional planning practice. It appeared from the interviews that both gender equality and diversity were perceived as difficult in regional transport planning and that more knowledge and experience were needed. It was pointed out that there existed some knowledge but that there were no structures for how it could be incorporated into the planning process. Noticeable are conflicting practices, while policy on gender equality are attached to the planning there are still beliefs that transport planning can be gender neutral and free from social impacts. The smart mobility approach promises improvements of mobility and access opportunities for all.