Vetenskapliga artiklar

Vetenskapliga artiklar

Vetenskapliga artiklar

Development and implementation of Mobility-as-a-Service – A qualitative study of barriers and enabling factors

C. M. Karlsson, D. Mukhtar-Landgren, G. Smith, T. Koglin, A. Kronsell, E. Lund, S. Sarasini and J. Sochor, ScienceDirect, September 2019
Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) has been argued as part of the solution to prevalent transport problems. However, progress from pilots to large-scale implementation has hitherto been slow. The aim of the research reported in this paper was to empirically and in-depth investigate how, and to what extent, different factors affect the development and implementation of MaaS. A framework was developed, with a basis in institutional theory and the postulation that formal as well informal factors on different analytical levels (macro, meso and micro) must be considered. The research was organised as a multiple case study in Finland and Sweden and a qualitative approach was chosen for data collection and analysis. A number of factors with a claimed impact on the development and implementation of MaaS was revealed. At the macro level, these factors included legislation concerning transport, innovation and public administration, and the presence (or not) of a shared vision for MaaS. At the meso level, (the lack of) appropriate business models, cultures of collaboration, and assumed roles and responsibilities within the MaaS ecosystem were identified as significant factors. At the micro level, people’s attitudes and habits were recognised as important factors to be considered. However, how the ‘S’ in MaaS fits (or not) the transport needs of the individual/household appears to play a more important role in adoption or rejection of MaaS than what has often been acknowledged in previous papers on MaaS. The findings presented in this paper provide several implications for public and private sector actors. Law-making authorities can facilitate MaaS developments by adjusting relevant regulations and policies such as transport-related subsidies, taxation policies and the definition of public transport. Regional and local authorities could additionally contribute to creating conducive conditions for MaaS by, for example, planning urban designs and transport infrastructures to support service-based travelling. Moreover, private actors have key roles to play in future MaaS developments, as both public and private transport services are needed if MaaS is to become a viable alternative to privately owned cars. Thus, the advance of MaaS business models that benefit all involved actors is vital for the prosperity of the emerging MaaS ecosystem.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Intermediary MaaS Integrators: A case study on hopes and fears

Göran Smith, Jana Sochor and I. C. MariAnne Karlsson, ScienceDirect, September 2019
At present, many policymakers and practitioners are searching for actions that could facilitate Mobility as a Service (MaaS) developments. A potential action, which has received a lot of attention, is to introduce Intermediary MaaS Integrators; that is intermediate actors that assemble the offerings from Transport Service Providers (TSPs) and distribute these to MaaS Operators. However, little is known about if and how TSPs and MaaS Operators would appreciate the introduction of Intermediary MaaS Integrators. To address this knowledge gap, this paper explores an attempt to establish a national Intermediary MaaS Integrator in Sweden. The contribution to transportation research is twofold. Firstly, the paper advances the conceptual understanding of Intermediary MaaS Integrators by identifying four defining dimensions: Activities, Management, Processes and Context. Secondly, it deepens the knowledge of Intermediary MaaS Integrators’ value propositions by detailing TSPs’ and prospective MaaS Operators’ hopes and fears vis-à-vis them. Lastly, practical implications for how to facilitate acceptance and adoption are proposed. Intermediary MaaS Integrators should only be introduced if basic incentives for using their services are in place, and if introduced, they should preferably: go beyond offering technical services; have clear, declared objectives; be impartial and capable actors; and carefully consider their launch strategies.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Public transport regimes and mobility as a service: Governance approaches in Amsterdam, Birmingham, and Helsinki

Fabio Hirschhorn, Alexander Paulsson, Claus H. Sørensen and Wijnand Veeneman, ScienceDirect, December 2019
This paper examines governance responses to Mobility as a Service (MaaS). The analysis focuses on the interactions between public transport systems and MaaS developments in Amsterdam, Birmingham, and Helsinki. Case comparison is informed by the multilevel perspective on socio-technical transitions and literature on meta-governance of networks. Drawing on these frameworks and empirical findings, the paper identifies six governance approaches to MaaS across cases: analyser, architect, convener, experimenter, lawmaker, and provider. These basic models encompass strategies ranging from hands-on strong intervention to information collection efforts. Consistent with the transitions literature, these six approaches indicate that public transport regimes seek to control the apparent disruptive potential of MaaS by incrementally absorbing innovations; to this end, regime actors adopt governance responses that tend to reproduce existing institutionalised ways of doing and prevailing logics. Furthermore, the six approaches reveal intense interaction between regime and niche, suggesting that a niche-regime space might have emerged in the cases; actors travel and operate across niche, regime, and niche-regimes, mainly driven by concerns with market share and revenue streams in the mobility system.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Contextualizing Policy: Understanding Implementation under Socio-technical Transitions

Claus Hedegaard Sørensen and Alexander Paulsson, International Journal of Public Administration, September 2019
Over the past 40 years, implementation of public policy has been developed into a mature but heterogenous field of research. Despite much attention paid to the context in which implementation occurs, studies thus far has only to a limited extent been concerned with how major socio-technological transitions affect the conditions for implementing policy. As societies experience major socio-technological transitions that radically change our ways of living and working, these changes also affect the implementation process. But how? This paper explores how theories of socio-technological changes can be drawn upon to add layers of explanations to a canonized model of integrated implementation. Recent technological developments in the transport sector are applied to this discussion to illustrate the usefulness of the suggested layered approach. The paper concludes by suggesting how the integrated implementation model and implementation theory can be combined.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Accessibility for All in Public Transport and the Overlooked (Social) Dimension—A Case Study of Stockholm

Vanessa Stjernborg, Sustainability, September 2019
Sweden was early to develop legislation related to accessible public transport for disabled people in 1979 and can therefore be seen as a forerunner. However, recent findings reveal widespread barriers in the Swedish public transport system and large variations between different parts of the country. This paper draws on empirical material consisting of complaints regarding accessibility left by travellers in Stockholm to a local transit company and aims to provide an overview of the character of complaints and to identify common themes through a qualitative content analysis. The results show that the most commonly reported challenge relates to boarding or getting off the vehicles, where the drivers are mostly described as the underlying reason for those difficulties. The narratives describe how some drivers misuse (or do not use) the accessibility equipment or show an abusive or attitudinal behaviour. The results support the body of literature on the meaning of continuous work with accessibility issues in public transport. Varying views on disability may have had a substantial impact on the development of our societies and on how the issues of accessibility in the public transport system have been prioritised or handled. Thus, this study highlights existing social barriers and variations in individual capacities as important factors that influence the experiences of public transport users. The study recommends an increased focus on educating drivers and staff about how to accommodate different groups of travellers. The study also recommends that transport providers consider drivers’ working conditions (i.e., with the consideration of timetables and high time-pressure). Further research on how well accessibility adaptations in public transport actually work and how the users perceive them is necessary.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

How to Integrate Gender Equality in the Future of “Smart” Mobility: A Matter for a Changing Planning Practice

Lena Levin, HCII: International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction July 2019
Sustainable transport is one of the key challenges of the UN and EU to ensure to meet society’s economic, social and environmental needs whilst minimising undesirable impacts. Sustainability planning may require changing the way we solve transportation problems. From the perspectives of the sustainability, we may assume that the emphasis should move in direction to changing the practice: but exactly what practice and who’s practices are to be changed? One way is to investigate gendered mobilities. The main differences in mobility patterns between women and men at a general level, are found in modal choice and travel distance. Women’s practices tend to be related to the most sustainable means of transport, while men’s practices are related to more un-sustainable transport. Relying on studies on transport planning including focus groups, interviews and workshops in Sweden, this paper ties the concepts of gender equality, to contemporary planning and sustainable “smart” mobility, and investigates in what way knowledge about gender equality is elaborated in regional planning practice. It appeared from the interviews that both gender equality and diversity were perceived as difficult in regional transport planning and that more knowledge and experience were needed. It was pointed out that there existed some knowledge but that there were no structures for how it could be incorporated into the planning process. Noticeable are conflicting practices, while policy on gender equality are attached to the planning there are still beliefs that transport planning can be gender neutral and free from social impacts. The smart mobility approach promises improvements of mobility and access opportunities for all.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Exploring the potential of using real-time traveler data in public transport disturbance management

Åse Jevinger and Jan Persson, Public Transport August 2019
New and emerging technologies, such as connected sensors, smartphones and smart cards, offer new possibilities to collect rich real-time information about travelers. Moreover, smartphones also enable travelers to actively share information, for instance, about their intended travel plans. This type of information can be used to improve public transport disturbance management. In this paper, the potential gain of collecting different types of information about travelers is explored to support action decisions made by public transport actors, during unplanned disturbances. Based on interviews and workshops, the paper provides a mapping between different information types and possible action decisions that can be supported. Furthermore, based on a literature review focused on current and potential technical solutions, a guidance to which solutions support which type of action decisions, is also provided. Amongst others, the results show that automated fare collection, which is one of the most commonly implemented systems providing real-time information about the traveler, can support a large number of action decisions relevant in unplanned disturbance scenarios. The technical solution providing the most extensive information, and thereby providing the best support for the action decisions, involves smartphone apps delivering user-generated information. The drawback with this solution is that it might violate privacy, and that it typically relies on the travelers providing relevant information voluntarily.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Monitoring finer-scale population density in urban functional zones: A remote sensing data fusion approach

Jinchao Song, Xiaoye Tong, Lizhe Wang, Chunli Zhao, Alexander V. Prishchepov, Landscape and Urban Planning May 2019
Spatial distribution information on population density is essential for understanding urban dynamics. In recent decades, remote sensing techniques have often been applied to assess population density, particularly night-time light data (NTL). However, such attempts have resulted in mapped population density at coarse/medium resolution, which often limits the applicability of such data for fine-scale territorial planning. The improved quality and availability of multi-source remote sensing imagery and location-based service data (LBS) (from mobile networks or social media) offers new potential for providing more accurate population information at the micro-scale level. In this paper, we developed a fine-scale population distribution mapping approach by combining the functional zones (FZ) mapped with high-resolution satellite images, NTL data, and LBS data. Considering the possible variations in the relationship between population distribution and nightlight brightness in functional zones, we tested and found spatial heterogeneity of the relationship between NTL and the population density of LBS samples. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) was thus implemented to test potential improvements to the mapping accuracy. The performance of the following four models was evaluated: only ordinary least squares regression (OLS), only GWR, OLS with functional zones (OLS&FZ) and GWR with functional zones (GWR&FZ). The results showed that NTL-based GWR&FZ was the most accurate and robust approach, with an accuracy of 0.71, while the mapped population density was at a unit of 30 m spatial resolution. The detailed population density maps developed in our approach can contribute to fine-scale urban planning, healthcare and emergency responses in many parts of the world.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Mapping spatio-temporal patterns and detecting the factors of traffic

Jinchao Song, Chunli Zhao, Shaopeng Zhong, Thomas Alexander Sick Nielsen, Alexander V. Prishchepov, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 77, September 2019
The study focuses on mapping spatiotemporal patterns and detecting the potential drivers of traffic congestion with multi-source data. First, based on real-time traffic data retrieved from an online map, the k-means clustering algorithm was applied to classify the spatiotemporal distribution of congested roads. Then, we applied a geographical detector (Geo-detector) to mine the potential factors for each spatiotemporal pattern. The results showed six congestion patterns for intra-regional roads and inter-regional roads on weekdays. On both intraregional and inter-regional roads, congestion density reflected by building height was the strongest indicator during the morning peak period. Public facilities such as hospitals, tourist sites and green spaces located near areas of employment or residential areas contributed to congestion during and off-peak hours. On intra-regional roads, the sparse road network and greater distance from the city center contribute to congestion during peak hours. On inter-regional roads, the number of bus stops contributed most to the early evening peak congestion, while the design of the entrances to large buildings in mixed business areas and public service areas increased the level of congestion. The results suggest that land use should be more mixed in high-density areas as this would reduce the number of trips made to the city center. However, mixed land-use planning should also be combined with a detailed design of the microenvironment to improve accessibility for different travel modes in order to increase the efficiency of traffic and reduce congestion. The innovative approach can be potentially applied in traffic congestion and land use planning studies elsewhere based on real-time multi-source data.
Vetenskapliga artiklar

Disparities in mobility among older people: Findings from a capability-based travel survey

Jean Ryan, Anders Wretstrand and Steven M Schmidt, July 2019
Despite some incremental policy shifts accounting for transport equity concerns, the norms within which transport systems worldwide currently function are still implicitly exclusive. Older people constitute a group which is particularly susceptible to issues within the transport system. However, this susceptibility is not evenly distributed, partly due to the considerable heterogeneity in circumstances among this group. The aim of this study is to advance the methods informing the transport equity policy agenda by conducting an empirical investigation of disparities in capabilities based on Sen's Capability Approach. This is done by identifying which resources and characteristics among those aged 65–79 are associated with fewer opportunities relative to their peers. By focusing on capabilities (instead of proxies), the disparities reflecting equity concerns can be more clearly depicted. The research material comprises 1149 interviews with those living in Sweden's large metropolitan regions: Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö. Several analyses were developed in order to address the research questions: a multivariate multinomial logistic regression, multivariate binary logistic regressions and a basic analysis of frequencies. Clear links were identified between social resources, holding a driving license, access to public transport, income, health condition and age and capabilities. These results call for a greater focus on capabilities in travel surveys and a more fine-grained approach to equity analyses and policies by accounting for intersectionality effects. As such, more targeted and holistic policy measures can be developed.

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