Decisions and effects

Public transport’s social effects and increased knowledge of the role of analysis results and analysis methods in decision-making processes for improved goal achievement.

Decisions and effects

bild beslut och effekter

Public transport is increasingly viewed as a tool for the development of cities and regions, based on a broad sustainability agenda that includes economic, social and environmental aspects. Knowledge of the effects of public transport for individuals and for society as a whole is of crucial importance for decisions on traffic supply programmes, investments and other measures that lead to increased target achievement. In order to contribute to strategic decision-making, the effects of public transport must be understood in a context that includes overall demographic and technological changes in society. 

A more systematic use of analysis methods, both before and after the fact, can contribute to increased knowledge and learning that will strengthen strategic capabilities in the long term. It is enormously important to also increase our knowledge of how analyses and their results are used and negotiated in practical planning and decision-making processes.

Overall research issues
A key aspect of the research area is to describe the effects of public transport on individuals and society, and to critically analyse how individuals and groups are described in analysis models. Impact analyses not only play an instrumental role in decision-making, but are often used conceptually or symbolically. Knowledge of effects must also, therefore, be analysed and understood on the basis of how decision-making processes work in practice.The following research issues have high priority in this area:

  • How does public transport contribute to achieving local, regional and national policy objectives for sustainable cities and regions, e.g. regarding employment targets and reduced climate emissions?
  • What effects do different types of actions have on travel and on passengers' experiences, e.g. accessibility measures for public transport? How can knowledge of such effects be used to guide the measures taken by municipalities and regions so that they can be expected to achieve the greatest benefit in terms of more sustainable travel?
  • What are the system effects of actions in the public transport system and its components, e.g. new conceptual solutions, vehicle electrification, changes to infrastructure and the services offered? How can this knowledge be used to contribute to decisions that lead to the attainment of established objectives?
  • How can citizens and passengers become more involved in analysis and decision processes? How can participation contribute to a better understanding of how public transport is perceived, how it functions and how it can be improved, and at the same time increase legitimacy with citizens for decisions on public transport development?
  • How are analyses used in actual decision processes? How can analyses e.g. evaluations after the fact, be systematized in order to contribute to long-term learning within the public transport sector?
  • Which new or developed models for impact assessments before the fact (e.g. simulation models) or after the fact, can support decision-making, in which the rate of change is high and uncertainty is high, for example, the use of new technology and new services? Which existing and future data sources can be used to support both operational and more strategic decision-making? Who has access to such data and with what consequences?

Expected results
The research is expected to contribute to new knowledge on the effects of public transport and to further develop methods for evaluating these effects. New insights on how decision-making processes work and what role analyses and methods of analysis play in these will be presented. The knowledge will contribute to more informed decision-making processes, to increased learning among public transport actors and greater participation by citizens. Overall, this will contribute to an increased ability to make decisions that lead to the attainment of established goals, e.g. regarding the transition required to achieve the climate goals.


Border controls and (im)mobilities: experiences from a public transport node

Vanessa Stjernborg, Mobilities, June 2024

Dwell time delays for commuter trains – An analysis of the influence of passengers on dwell time delays

Ruben Alaric Kuipers, Doctoral thesis, Lund University, 2024

Planeringsverktyg för Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) i Sverige

Jakob Allansson, Joel Hansson och Fredrik Pettersson-Löfstedt, K2 Outreach 2024:2

Train stations’ impact on housing prices: Direct and indirect effects

Alexandra Rojas, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, March 2024

How accessibility to schools is not (just) a transport problem: the case of public school choice in the city of Malmö, Sweden

Aaron Nichols & Jean Ryan, European Transport Research, November 2023

The importance of recurring public transport delays for accessibility and mode choice

Aaron Nichols, Jean Ryan, Carl-William Palmqvist, Journal of Transport Geography Volume 115, February 2024

Impact of a lower demand during the COVID-19 pandemic on the frequency of dwell time delays

Ruben Kuipers & Carl-William Palmqvist, Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, September 2023

In-between stability and adaptability

Lina Berglund-Snodgrass, Mats Fred & Dalia Mukhtar-Landgren, disP - The Planning Review, September 2023

Collaborative challenges and barriers when planning and implementing Bus Rapid Transit (BRT): Lessons from Swedish BRT projects

Jakob Allansson, Fredrik Pettersson-Löfstedt & Robert Hrelja, Urban, Planning and Transport Research, Augusti 2023

Sustainability in practice: A governmentality study about transit‐oriented development in rural areas

Freja Lina Huhle, master thesis, Malmö University, 2021

A Methodology for Monitoring Rail Punctuality Improvements

C.W. Palmqvist & I. Kristoffersson, IEEE Open Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2022.

Nyckeltal för punktlighet på järnväg - del 2

Ida Kristoffersson & Carl William Palmqvist

Future Public Mobility - The next step for sustainable travel

Rådslaget, 2022.

The Effects of Train Passes on Dwell Time Delays in Sweden

Kah Yong Tiong, Carl-William Palmqvist & Nils O. E. Olsson. Applied Sciences. March 2022.

Potential Benefits of Demand Responsive Transport in Rural Areas: A Simulation Study in Lolland, Denmark

Sergei Dytckov, Jan A. Persson, Fabian Lorig & Paul Davidsson. Sustainability. March 2022.

Decreasing the share of travel by car. Strategies for implementing ‘push’ or ‘pull’ measures in a traditionally car-centric transport and land use planning

Robert Hrelja & Tom Rye. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation. March 2022.

Exploring the Energy Saving Potential in Private, Public and Non-Motorized Transport for Ten Swedish Cities

Jeffrey R. Kenworthy & Helena Svensson. Sustainability 2022

Constructing Transit Corridors: The Politics of Public Transport Policy and Planning in Malmöhus and Skåne 1970-2020

Jens Portinson Hylander, doctoral thesis, Lund University, December 2021

Effects of rural bus stops on travel time and reliability

Joel Hansson, Fredrik Pettersson-Löfstedt, Helena Svensson and Anders Wretstrand, Public transport 2021

Public transport path choice estimation based on trip data from dedicated smartphone app survey

Ulrik Berggren, Thomas Kjær-Rasmussen, Mikkel Thorhauge, Helena Svensson and Karin Brundell-Freij, Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, September 2021

Intrapersonal variability in public transport path choice due to changes in service reliability

Ulrik Berggren, Carmelo D´Agostino, Helena Svensson, Karin Brundell-Freij. Transportation July 2021

How the built environment and the railway network can affect the mobility of older people : Analyses of the southern Swedish region of Scania

Rosalia Camporeale, Anders Wretstrand and Magnus Andersson, Research in Transportation Business & Management, March 2019

Appraisal of a regional public transport project: A document and interview analysis on a light rail case in Sweden

Erik Johansson, Anna Anund and Till Koglin, Case Studies on Transport Policy, June 2019

Same, same but different? Neighbourhood effects of accessibility on housing prices

Helena Bohman, Transport Policy, June 2021

Railway network design and regional labour markets in Sweden

Erik Johansson, Rosalia Camporeale and Carl-William Palmqvist, Research in Transportation Economics Volume 83, November 2020

Local Autonomy in Temporary Organizations: The Case of Smart City Pilots

Dalia Mukhtar-Landgren, Administration & Society, April 2021

A study of changes in everyday mobility during the Covid-19 pandemic: As perceived by people living in Malmö, Sweden

Helena Bohman, Jean Ryan, Vanessa Stjernborg, Désirée Nilsson, Transport Policy, June 2021

Contested values in bike-sharing mobilities – A case study from Sweden

Till Koglin, Dalia Mukhtar-Landgren, Journal of Transport Geography, April 2021

The passenger’s influence on dwell times at station platforms: a literature review

Ruben A. Kuipers, Carl-William Palmqvist, Nils O.E. Olsson, Lena Winslott Hiselius, Transport Reviews, February 2021

Governance reaction to the emerging megacity shrinkage in Tokyo: The case of the Tsukuba express transit-suburban region

Eigo Tateichi, Kyoko Takahashi, Taku Nakano, Cities, February 2021

Discrete Event Simulation of Bus Terminals: A Modular Approach with a High Spatial Resolution

Therese Lindberg, Journal of Advanced Transportation, January 2021

Borrowed sizes: A hedonic price approach to the value of network structure in public transport systems

Helena Bohman and Désirée Nilsson, Journal of transport and land use, January 2021

COVID-19 and Public Transport

Chiara Vitrano, K2 Working paper 2021:1

Increasing public transport patronage – An analysis of planning principles and public transport governance in Swedish regions with the highest growth in ridership

Jamil Khan, Robert Hrelja and Fredrik Pettersson-Löfstedt, ScienceDirect January 2021

Knowledge for policy-making in times of uncertainty: the case of autonomous vehicle model results

Carey Curtis, Sam McLeod, John Hultén, Fredrik Pettersson-Löfstedt, Alexander Paulsson and Claus Hedegaard Sørensen, Transport Reviews, December 2020

Replacing regional bus services with rail: Changes in rural public transport patronage in and around villages

Joel Hansson, Fredrik Pettersson-Löfstedt, Helena Svensson and Anders Wretstrand, Transport Policy February 2021

Governance reaction to the emerging megacity shrinkage in Tokyo: The case of the Tsukuba express transit-suburban region

Eigo Tateishi, Kyoko Takahashi and Taku Nakano, Cities, November 2020

Policies for Reducing Car Traffic and Their Problematisation. Lessons from the Mobility Strategies of British, Dutch, German and Swedish Cities

Tom Rye and Robert Hrelja, Sustainability, October 2020

The knowledge problem of public transport policy

Erik Johansson, doctoral thesis, September 2020

Sustainable Mobility in Ten Swedish Cities

Jeffrey R. Kenworthy, K2 Working paper 2020:8, May 2020

Explaining dwell time delays with passenger counts for some commuter trains in Stockholm and Tokyo

Carl-William Palmqvist, Norio Tomii, Yasufumi Ochiai, Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, March 2020

Access to public mobility services and health in old age: a cross-sectional study in three Swedish cities

Carlos Chiatti, Yngve Westerlund, Agneta Ståhl. Journal of Transport and Health, Vol. 7, 2018

Bus Stops and Violence, Are Risky Places Really Risky?

Manne Gerell. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 24. 2018.

A Dynamic Approach to Multi-Agent-Based Simulation in Urban Transportation Planning

Banafsheh Hajinasab. 2018.

The Role of Public Transport in Society—A Case Study of General Policy Documents in Sweden

Vanessa Stjernborg, Ola Mattisson. Sustainability, Vol. 8, 2016

Evaluation of public transport: regional policies and planning practices in Sweden

Erik Johansson, Lena Winslott Hiselius, Till Koglin, Anders Wretstrand. Urban, Planning and Transport Research, Vol. 5, 2017

A Simulation Model for Assessment and Evaluation of Bus Terminal Design

Therese Lindberg, Anders Peterson, Andreas Tapani. CASPT, 2018.

A Simulation Model of Local Public Transport Access at a Railway Station

Therese Lindberg, Anders Peterson, Andreas Tapani. 2017.

Regression-based evaluation of bicycle flow trend estimates

Johan Holmgren, Gabriel Moltubakk, Jody O'Neill. Procedia Computer Science, Vol. 130, 2018

On the use of on-line services in transport simulation

Banafsheh Hajinasab, Paul Davidsson, Jan A. Persson, Johan Holmgren. Transportation Research Procedia, Vol. 21, 2017.

Prediction of bicycle counter data using regression

Johan Holmgren, Sebastian Aspegren, Jonas Dahlström. Procedia Computer Science, Vol. 113, 2017.

Investigating Spatial Inequalities

Peter Gladoic Håkansson and Helena Bohman, Emerald Publishing Limited, November 2019

The effect of marketing messages on the motivation to reduce private car use in different segments

Alfred Andersson, Lena Winslott Hiselius, Emeli Adell, Transport Policy, May 2020

Effects from usage of pre-trip information and passenger scheduling strategies on waiting times in public transport: an empirical survey based on a dedicated smartphone application

Ulrik Berggren, Karin Brundell-Freij, Helena Svensson & Anders Wretstrand , Public Transport, November 2019

Why do cities invest in bus priority measures? Policy, polity, and politics in Stockholm and Copenhagen

Fredrik Pettersson and Claus Hedegaard Sørensen, Transport Policy, October 2019

Contextualizing Policy: Understanding Implementation under Socio-technical Transitions

Claus Hedegaard Sørensen and Alexander Paulsson, International Journal of Public Administration, September 2019

Exploring the potential of using real-time traveler data in public transport disturbance management

Åse Jevinger and Jan Persson, Public Transport August 2019

Monitoring finer-scale population density in urban functional zones: A remote sensing data fusion approach

Jinchao Song, Xiaoye Tong, Lizhe Wang, Chunli Zhao, Alexander V. Prishchepov, Landscape and Urban Planning May 2019

Mapping spatio-temporal patterns and detecting the factors of traffic

Jinchao Song, Chunli Zhao, Shaopeng Zhong, Thomas Alexander Sick Nielsen, Alexander V. Prishchepov, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 77, September 2019

Preferences in regional public transport: a literature review

Joel Hansson, Fredrik Pettersson, Helena Svensson and Anders Wretstrand, European Transport Research Review, July 2019

Evaluation of free public transport for older people in Sweden

Tania Dukic Willstrand, Per Henriksson, Helena Svensson and Lena Levin, Proceedings of the 6th Humanist Conference, The Hague, Netherlands, 13-14 June 2018

An international review of experiences from on-demand public transport services

Fredrik Pettersson K2 Working Paper 2019:5

Discrete event simulation of bus terminals

Therese Lindberg, Licentiate Thesis, Linköping May 2019

Swedish and Scottish National Transport Policy and Spend: A Social Equity Analysis

Tom Rye and Anders Wretstrand 29 March 2019

Potentials of Context-Aware Travel Support during Unplanned Public Transport Disturbances

Åse Jevinger, Jan Persson, Sustainability 2019, 11(6)

An urban bikeway network design model for inclusive and equitable transport policies

Rosalia Camporeale et al, Transportation Research Procedia, Vol 27, 2019

Urban Transport and Eco-Urbanism: A Global Comparative Study of Cities with a Special Focus on Five Larger Swedish Urban Regions

Jeffrey Kennworthy, Urban Sci. 2019, 3(1)

Sustainable Mobility in Swedish Cities

Jeff Kenworthy, K2 Working Papers 2019:1.

Networked authority and regionalised governance: Public transport, a hierarchy of documents and the anti-hierarchy of authorship

Alexander Paulsson, Karolina Isaksson, Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space, Dec 2018

Justifying Mega-Projects. An Analysis of the Swedish High-Speed Rail Project

Erik Ronnle, Lund studies in Economics and Management. Lund 2019.

Towards an Agent-Based Model of Passenger Transportation

Banafsheh Hajinasab , Paul Davidsson, Jan A. Persson, Johan Holmgren, Volume 9568 of the series Lecture Notes in Computer Science pp 132-145, 15 March 2016

Research projects

En minut hit eller dit – fördjupad förståelse av tidens betydelse

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Exploring Measures to Monitor Passenger-Centric Punctuality in Public Transport: A Pre-study.

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Abderrahman Ait-Ali

Metoder för anbudsutvärdering i svensk upphandling av kollektiv busstrafik

Project manager: 
Ivan Ridderstedt

PMR3 – Punktlig tågtrafik i storstadsregionerna 3: kalibrering och simulering av punktlighet i tågtrafiken runt Stockholm, Göteborg och Malmö

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Access Sweden

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Din Resa = Min arbetsplats – En studie om gränssnittet mellan personer som reser och arbetar i kollektivtrafiken

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Karin Winter

Exploring Citizen Satisfaction with Public Transportation through Social Media and Open Text Surveys

Project manager: 
Elnaz Sarkheyli

Förstudie av framgångsfaktorer och fallgropar för införande av spridda skolstartstider

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Att samverka eller inte – gränser för samverkan i kollektivtrafiken

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Do basic provisions meet inhabitants’ accessibility needs? (BAS)

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Punktlighet – är resenärsupplevd och objektivt uppmätt tillförlitlighet samma sak?

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Att förstå mobilitetsmönster i tio svenska regioner

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Capturing the impacts of changes in public transport accessibility

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Equitable accessibility by public transport: Moving from static analysis to incorporating time-space dynamics

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Knowledge base for better collaboration in planning and implementation of Swedish BRT

Local preferences as beacons for efficient public transport supply

Project manager: 
Henrik Andersson

Organizing innovation: learning from pilots and testlabs

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Railway network design and regional labour markets in Sweden

Policies for Reducing Car Traffic and their Problematization. An essential goal when improving public transport attractiveness and long term competitiveness.

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Onboard perspective on context-aware travel support for disturbances in public transport

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Socio-Economic Benefits of Elderly Mobility

Project manager: 
Carlos Chiatti

Agent-based Simulation of passenger

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