Future mobility

Opportunities and challenges of new digital technologies and the traditional public transport’s interface with new mobility services.

Future mobility

bild framtidens mobilitet

Public transport both affects, and is affected by, complex relationships with other functions and events in major cities and their surrounding areas. The planning, implementation and operation of public transport therefore needs to be more integrated with other spatial planning. This particularly applies in relation to issues concerning strategies and plans for urban land use and planning, but also in relation to other social functions at local, regional and national level, such as healthcare, education, environment and regional development. Public transport must also be planned in an integrated manner with other types of traffic, to better integrate cycling and public transport.

Digitisation will facilitate the emergence of new demand-driven or shared mobility services and new business models for combined-service passengers that can compete with or complement today’s public transport services. The introduction of autonomous vehicles can accelerate and reinforce the effects of such a trend. This development creates opportunities, but also challenges, for example, for personal privacy, for various individuals’ access to a changed mobility landscape, for costs and for the ability to achieve climate targets and environmental goals.

Overall research issues
Although most public transport will be provided by existing services for the foreseeable future, digitisation and new mobility services will entail a major change for passengers and commercial operators in and around public transport. This trend also affects the way in which public transport is organised, which actors are involved, and their different strategies. New solutions also affect the conditions and requirements for the physical design of the transport system and the public transport services offered.

Research is needed on the following, broadly formulated issues: 

  • How can behaviour be changed as a result of digitisation generally, such as changes to the organisation of working life, and to new mobility services in particular? What do such behavioural changes mean for passengers and for the demand for public transport at different times and places in the city or the surrounding area? How does it affect public transport costs and socio-economic efficiency?
  • What kind of individualised and context-conscious information can support combined-service travel from a passenger's perspective? How can this be adapted for passengers with different circumstances and requirements?
  • How can resilient collaboration and business models, including information sharing, be designed for different types of combined-service traveller, which include both traditional public transport, new mobility services, walking and cycling, in ways that lead to more sustainable travel in cities and regions?
  • How can public transport services, including special passenger transport, be affected by new mobility services, e.g. in a city’s suburbs or periphery, or where there are few passengers? How does this affect society's responsibility to provide and finance public transport, and how can public transport authorities and other societal actors take advantage of the opportunities provided by new solutions?
  • How is the physical environment impacted by digitisation and the new mobility services, e.g. the location and design of interchanges? What does this mean for urban and infrastructure planning locally, regionally and nationally?

Expected results
The research is expected to contribute to an increased understanding of how new technology and new services can affect public transport. It includes increased knowledge about how people with different needs and circumstances choose to travel when new opportunities for mobility and information are offered. This knowledge helps to make the regional public transport authorities, municipalities and other relevant actors better equipped to handle opportunities and risks in the mobility landscape of the future, and increases their strategic ability to influence trends in a direction that leads to more sustainable travel.


Potential of demand responsive transport for young people in Sweden

Chunli Zhao, Mengtian Xue & Zahra Hamidi, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, June 2024.

Identifying mobility segments for leisure travel: A cluster analysis based on a one-month travel survey

Emma Strömblad, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, March 2024

Elbussar ur ett stadsplaneringsperspektiv

Vendela Åslund och Fredrik Pettersson-Löfstedt, K2 Working Paper 2024:3

Införande av efterfrågestyrd kollektivtrafik på Färingsö

Jan A. Persson, Fabian Lorig och Åse Jevinger, K2 Working Paper 2024:2

Strategic Planning Capacities in a Time of Platformisation

Kelsey Oldbury & Karolina Isaksson, Nordic Journal of Urban Studies, December 2023

Artificial intelligence for improving public transport: a mapping study

Åse Jevinger, Chunli Zhao, Jan Persson & Paul Davidsson, Public Transport, July 2023

Railway maintenance windows: Discrepancies between planning and practice in Sweden

Daria Ivina & Carl-William Palmqvist, Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, November 2023

Spatiotemporal heterogeneity of the shared e-scooter–public transport relationships in Stockholm and Helsinki

Zijian Guo, Jian Liu, Pengxiang Zhao, Aoyong Li & Xintao Liu, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, September 2023

Rationales for transitioning to electric buses in Swedish public transport

Vendela Åslund & Fredrik Pettersson-Löfstedt, Research in Transportation Economics, September 2023

Public-private MaaS: Unchallenged assumptions and issues of conflict in Sweden

Göran Smith & Claus Hedegaard Sørensen, Research in Transportation Economics, June 2023

Train delays due to trackwork in Sweden

Daria Ivina, Carl-William Palmqvist, Nils Olsson & Lena Winslott Hiselius. Conference paper presented at 9th International Conference on Railway Operations Modelling and Analysis (ICROMA), 2021.

Guidelines för attraktiv regional busstrafik - Regional BRT

K2 broschyr, 2016.

Developing a regional superbus concept – Collaboration challenges

Fredrik Pettersson, Case Studies on Transport Policy, Available online 31 January 2018

Micromobility – Regulatory Challenges and Opportunities

Nils Fearnley, 2020, Chapter in: Paulsson, A. and Sørensen, C.H. (Ed.) Shaping Smart Mobility Futures: Governance and Policy Instruments in times of Sustainability Transitions, Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 169-186.

Interactive Machine Learning for Commuters: Achieving Personalised Travel Planners through Machine Teaching

Lars Holmberg, presentation for UITP Stockholm Global PublicTransport Summit, 2019

Lean Construction Principles and Railway Maintenance Planning

Daria Ivina & Nils O.E. Olsson, In: Tommelein, I.D. and Daniel, E. (eds.). Proc. 28th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC28), Berkeley, California, USA

Significance of the contractual relationship for the efficient railway maintenance project planning

Daria Ivinaa, Nils O.E.Olsson & Lena Winslott Hiselius, Procedia Computer Science, 2022.

Future Public Mobility - The next step for sustainable travel

Rådslaget, 2022.

Experimentation for sustainable transport? Risks, strengths, and governance implications

Kelsey Oldbury, Karolina Isaksson & Greg Marsden (Eds.), 2022.

Information flows in Demand Responsive Public Transport: Interactivity, information, and flexibility in a modern ridesharing service

Oscar Askfelt and Karl Hamnebo, Malmö University, Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), spring 2021.

An Individual-based Simulation Approach to Demand Responsive Transport

Sergei Dytckov, Fabian Lorig, Johan Holmgren, Paul Davidsson, and Jan A Persson. Conference paper. 4th International Conference on Intelligent Transport Systems, Virtual Event, December, 2020

Passengers’ choices in multimodal public transport systems - A study of revealed behaviour and measurement methods

Ulrik Berggren, doctoral thesis, Lund University, November 2021

Public transport path choice estimation based on trip data from dedicated smartphone app survey

Ulrik Berggren, Thomas Kjær-Rasmussen, Mikkel Thorhauge, Helena Svensson and Karin Brundell-Freij, Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, September 2021

Steering green buses: The opportunities and challenges of introducing renewable fuel in public transport

Malin Aldenius, doctoral thesis, Lund University, October 2021

Mobility as a service and public transport

Göran Smith, chapter in The Routledge Handbook of Public Transport, 2021

The role of consumer innovativeness and green perceptions on green innovation use: The case of shared e-bikes and e-scooters

Phil Flores, Johan Jansson, Journal of Consumer Behaviour, May 2021

Soft measures to shift modality

Aldred Söderberg, doctoral thesis, Lund University, May 2021

Spatio-temporal patterns of traffic-related air pollutant emissions in different urban functional zones estimated by real-time video and deep learning technique

Jinchao Song, Chunli Zhao, Tao Lin, Xinhu Li and Alexander V. Prishchepov, chapter in Journal of Cleaner Production, November 2019

Evaluating the Efficiency of Bike-Sharing Stations with Data Envelopment Analysis

Leonardo Caggiani, Rosalia Camporeale, Zahra Hamidi and Chunli Zhao, Journal of Sustainability, January 2021

Governance arrangements shaping driverless shuttles in public transport: The case of Barkarbystaden, Stockholm

Kelsey Oldbury and Karolina Isaksson, Cities June 2021

Discrete Event Simulation of Bus Terminals: A Modular Approach with a High Spatial Resolution

Therese Lindberg, Journal of Advanced Transportation, January 2021

Public transport meets smart mobility: Roles and relationships shaping driverless shuttles and MaaS

Kelsey Oldbury, KTH Publication, January 2021

COVID-19 and Public Transport

Chiara Vitrano, K2 Working paper 2021:1

What is the substitution effect of e-bikes? A randomised controlled trial

Alfred Söderberg, Emeli Adell and Lena Winslott Hiselius, ScienceDirect January 2021

Knowledge for policy-making in times of uncertainty: the case of autonomous vehicle model results

Carey Curtis, Sam McLeod, John Hultén, Fredrik Pettersson-Löfstedt, Alexander Paulsson and Claus Hedegaard Sørensen, Transport Reviews, December 2020

Modelling Commuting Activities for the Simulation of Demand Responsive Transport in Rural Areas

Sergei Dytckov, Fabian Lorig, Paul Davidsson, Johan Holmgren and Jan A Persson, International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems, November 2020

Shaping sustainable travel behaviour: Attitude, skills, and access all matter

Zahra Hamidi and Chunli Zhao, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, November 2020

Governance and Citizen Participation in Shaping Futures of Smart Mobility

Claus Hedegaard Sørensen and Alexander Paulsson, chapter in anthology Shaping smart mobility futures: governance and policy instruments in times of sustainability transitions, Emerald Publishing Limited, August 2020

Smart Public Transport in Rural Areas: Prospects, Challenges and Policy Needs

Fredrik Pettersson Löfstedt and Jamil Khan, chapter in anthology Shaping smart mobility futures: governance and policy instruments in times of sustainability transitions, Emerald Publishing Limited, August 2020

Is Governing Capacity Undermined? Policy Instruments in Smart Mobility Futures

Anna Wallsten, Claus Hedegaard Sørensen, Alexander Paulsson and John Hultén, chapter in anthology Shaping smart mobility futures: governance and policy instruments in times of sustainability transitions, Emerald Publishing Limited, August 2020

Experimental Governance of Smart Mobility: Some Normative Implications

Annica Kronsell and Dalia Mukhtar-Landgren, chapter in anthology Shaping smart mobility futures: governance and policy instruments in times of sustainability transitions, Emerald Publishing Limited, August 2020

Challenges for Government as Facilitator and Umpire of Innovation in Urban Transport: The View from Australia

John Stone, David Ashmore, Crystal Legacy and Carey Curtis, chapter in anthology Shaping smart mobility futures: governance and policy instruments in times of sustainability transitions, Emerald Publishing Limited, August 2020

Planning Urban Futures for Autonomous and Shared Vehicles: The Role of Planning Support Tools as a Policy Instrument

Sam McLeod, Carey Curtis and John Stone, chapter in anthology Shaping smart mobility futures: governance and policy instruments in times of sustainability transitions, Emerald Publishing Limited, August 2020

Crafting Effective Policy Instruments for ‘Smart Mobility’: Can Multi-level Governance Deliver?

Iain Docherty, chapter in anthology Shaping smart mobility futures: governance and policy instruments in times of sustainability transitions, Emerald Publishing Limited, August 2020

Smart Mobility and Policy Instruments: Broadened Definitions and Critical Understandings

Alexander Paulsson and Claus Hedegaard Sørensen, chapter in anthology Shaping smart mobility futures: governance and policy instruments in times of sustainability transitions, Emerald Publishing Limited, August 2020

How much regulation should disruptive transport technologies be subject to?

Göran Smith and Walter Theseira, Research in Transportation Economics, August 2020

Shaping Smart Mobility Futures: Governance and Policy Instruments in times of Sustainability Transitions

Editors Alexander Paulsson and Claus Hedegaard Sørensen, Emerald Publishing Limited, August 2020

Seeing into the future of mobility: the contestable value of expert knowledge and Delphi as futures methods

Alexander Paulsson, Fabio Hirschhorn and Claus Hedegaard Sørensen, chapter in Handbook of Research Methods and Applications for Mobilities, August 2020

Mobility as a service: moving in the de-synchronized city

Chiara Vitrano and Matteo Colleoni, chapter in Handbook of Urban Mobilities, June 2020

Understanding Mobility as a Service (MaaS)

David Hensher, Corinne Mulley, Chinh Ho, Yale Wong, Göran Smith and John Nelson, May 2020

Making Mobility-as-a-Service: Towards Governance Principles and Pathways

Göran Smith, Doctoral thesis, May 2020

A Dynamic Approach to Multi-Agent-Based Simulation in Urban Transportation Planning

Banafsheh Hajinasab. 2018.

Decision support tool for demand responsive transport through simulation

S Dytckov, P Davidsson, J Holmgren, JA Persson (2018), Decision support tool for demand responsive transport through simulation, Proceedings of the 2018 Winter Simulation Conference, 4188-4189

Towards a framework for Mobility-as-a-Service policies

Göran Smith and David A. Hensher, Transport Policy April 2020

Evaluating a Mobility Service Application for Business Travel: Lessons Learnt from a Demonstration Project

Alfred Andersson, Lena Winslott Hiselius, Jessica Berg, Sonja Forward and Peter Arnfalk, Sustainability, January 2020

Is climate morality the answer? Preconditions affecting the motivation to decrease private car use

Alfred Andersson, Transport Research, January 2020

Effects from usage of pre-trip information and passenger scheduling strategies on waiting times in public transport: an empirical survey based on a dedicated smartphone application

Ulrik Berggren, Karin Brundell-Freij, Helena Svensson & Anders Wretstrand , Public Transport, November 2019

Development and implementation of Mobility-as-a-Service – A qualitative study of barriers and enabling factors

C. M. Karlsson, D. Mukhtar-Landgren, G. Smith, T. Koglin, A. Kronsell, E. Lund, S. Sarasini and J. Sochor, Transportation Research part A, September 2019

Intermediary MaaS Integrators: A case study on hopes and fears

Göran Smith, Jana Sochor and I. C. MariAnne Karlsson, Transportation Research part A, September 2019

Public transport regimes and mobility as a service: Governance approaches in Amsterdam, Birmingham, and Helsinki

Fabio Hirschhorn, Alexander Paulsson, Claus H. Sørensen and Wijnand Veeneman, Transportation Research part A, December 2019

How to Integrate Gender Equality in the Future of “Smart” Mobility: A Matter for a Changing Planning Practice

Lena Levin, HCII: International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction July 2019

Exploring the potential of using real-time traveler data in public transport disturbance management

Åse Jevinger and Jan Persson, Public Transport August 2019

Monitoring finer-scale population density in urban functional zones: A remote sensing data fusion approach

Jinchao Song, Xiaoye Tong, Lizhe Wang, Chunli Zhao, Alexander V. Prishchepov, Landscape and Urban Planning May 2019

Mapping spatio-temporal patterns and detecting the factors of traffic

Jinchao Song, Chunli Zhao, Shaopeng Zhong, Thomas Alexander Sick Nielsen, Alexander V. Prishchepov, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 77, September 2019

Disturbance Management and Information Availability in Public Transport, with Focus on Scania County, Sweden

Åsa Jevinger and Jan Persson, Urban and Transit Planning July 2019

Perceived action spaces for public actors in the development of Mobility as a Service

Dalia Mukhtar-Landgren and Göran Smith, European Transport Research Review 2019

An international review of experiences from on-demand public transport services

Fredrik Pettersson K2 Working Paper 2019:5

Governing Mobility-as-a-Service: Insights from Sweden and Finland

Göran Smith et al, book chapter in The Governance of Smart Transportation Systems, 2019

Potentials of Context-Aware Travel Support during Unplanned Public Transport Disturbances

Åse Jevinger, Jan Persson, Sustainability 2019, 11(6)

Mobility as a service: Comparing developments in Sweden and Finland

Göran Smith, Jana Sochor, Steven Sarasini, Research in Transportation Business & Management, June 2018

Public–private innovation: barriers in the case of mobility as a service in West Sweden

Smith, G., Sochor, J., Karlsson, M. (2018.) Public-private innovation: barriers in the case of mobility as a service in West Sweden. Public Management Review. 4 maj 2018.

Developing a regional superbus concept – Collaboration challenges

Fredrik Pettersson, Case Studies on Transport Policy, Available online 31 January 2018

The fourth wave of digitalization and public transport: opportunities and challenges

Paul Davidsson * , Banafsheh Hajinasab, Johan Holmgren, Åse Jevinger, Jan A. Persson

Research projects

Conflicted Streets – Navigating conflicts over streets and urban space in the transition to the 15mC

Spänningar vid utveckling och införande av digitala policyinstrument för framtidens mobilitet

Project manager: 
Daniel Rudmark

Transatlantic Cooperation for Leveling Up MaaS

Project manager: 
Jana Sochor

Access Sweden

Project manager: 

Alla ombord! Mot framtidens mobilitets- och digitala servicelösningar tillgängliga för alla

Project manager: 

Din Resa = Min arbetsplats – En studie om gränssnittet mellan personer som reser och arbetar i kollektivtrafiken

Project manager: 
Karin Winter

Exploring Citizen Satisfaction with Public Transportation through Social Media and Open Text Surveys

Project manager: 
Elnaz Sarkheyli

Policy lab for public transport on-demand

Project manager: 

Scenarier för framtidens kollektiva mobilitet

Project manager: 

Serviceresornas utveckling i ett transportsamhälle präglat av smart mobilitet, digitalisering och hållbart resande

Project manager: 
Jonna Nyberg

The role and character of public transport within planetary and social boundaries: thresholds, scenarios, and positive visions

Project manager: 

The role of On-Demand Transit in a Just Future Public Mobility (JustFuture)

Project manager: 

Understanding the impact of shared e-scooters on spatial accessibility and social equity of public transport in a Nordic context

Project manager: 
Pengxiang Zhao

Capacities for Resilient and Inclusive Urban Public Transport Infrastructure and Built Environment (CARIN-PT)

Project manager: 

Extended Knowledge Exchange between Sweden and San Francisco Bay Area regarding future of public transport and shared mobility

Project manager: 
Elias Arnestrand

Is shared micromobility part of public transport’s future? Identifying the purpose, motivations, and substitution effect of shared e-bike and shared e-scooter use

Nätverk Mikromobilitet

Project manager: 
Project manager: 
Kent Eric Lång, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Punktlig Tågtrafik i Storstadsregionerna – del 2, simulering i PROTON

Project manager: 

Att förstå mobilitetsmönster i tio svenska regioner

Project manager: 

Bus stops and bus shelters in the production of public space and mobility

Project manager: 

Eplusbus - changeover to electric buses in Swedish public transport

New mobilities in the making - an exploration of collaborative arrangements that shape future urban public transport

Project manager: 

Regulating smart mobility: Addressing challenges and opportunities in the digital transition of mobility (REGSMART)

Project manager: 
Nils Fearnley

Towards integrated and adaptive public transport

Project manager: 

Communicating public transport in the digital age: Impact of digitization on current and future traveler groups´ attitudes, satisfaction and travel behaviors

Project manager: 

Is escooter a desirable mode for future mobility?

Project manager: 

Onboard perspective on context-aware travel support for disturbances in public transport

Project manager: