Integrated planning

Public transport design and its integration with land use and other local and regional planning

Integrated planning

bild integrerad samhällsplanering

Public transport both affects, and is affected by, complex relationships with other functions and events in major cities and their surrounding areas. The planning, implementation and operation of public transport therefore needs to be more integrated with other spatial planning. This particularly applies in relation to issues concerning strategies and plans for urban land use and planning, but also in relation to other social functions at local, regional and national level, such as healthcare, education, environment and regional development. Public transport must also be planned in an integrated manner with other types of traffic, to better integrate cycling and public transport.

Integrated planning must be done on the basis of changing societal needs due to an ageing population and technological developments, and on the basis of demands for a transition in order to achieve climate targets and accessibility goals.

Overall research issues
Public transport and buildings are fundamental structures in a city, and how well they are integrated into the urban landscape plays a crucial role in the living and provisioning conditions of individuals and groups, as well as their options for sustainable travel. The design of public transport is influenced by and affects other functions in cities and regions and affects the land values of cities, often in ways that have a structuring role. Integrated spatial planning places great demands on coordination and cooperation between organisations, which can be difficult due to different goals, interests, professions, organisational cultures and divisions between different administrative levels. Collaboration is often time consuming and can contribute to unclear divisions of responsibilities. Research is required on the following issues:

  • How and with what consequences can the planning of public transport be integrated with other urban and regional planning? How can the integration be improved between different types of traffic, e.g. public transport and cycling? What formal and informal obstacles exist for this to happen?
  • In what way can the preconditions for public transport be developed through cooperation between private actors, municipalities, regional and state authorities, e.g. through financial incentives or more coherent processes for infrastructure investments and accessibility measures? How is the interaction between actors' different goals, interests and practices affected? In what situations and in what way can collaboration be difficult, for example, by creating an unclear allocation of responsibilities?
  • In what way and with what result can planning be broadened so that public transport is handled in a more integrated way with other areas, e.g. the healthcare sector? What requirements does it impose on organisation and the ability to collaborate between different actors?
  • How can we get a better understanding of the structuring effect of public transport on urban land use, including different types of public transport, e.g. track-bound traffic and electrified bus traffic? In what way is this affected by new concepts and new mobility services, within cities and between cities and their surrounding areas? 
  • In what way can cities and regions be developed through densification around public transport hubs, and how can bus stops, stations and hubs be designed as meeting places in the city?  
  • How, and with what effects, can municipalities and regions work to disperse the demand for public transport over larger parts of the day, e.g. through dynamic opening hours of social functions such as schools and childcare, increased opportunities for distance working etc.?

Expected results
The research is expected to highlight how different goals, interests, professions and organisational cultures have an impact on the way in which planning is conducted and the effects that this has on the physical design. This knowledge will contribute to exploring the preconditions for, and opportunities associated with, more integrated social planning. The research offers public transport actors a better understanding of how coordination and collaboration with other important areas can and should be conducted in order to achieve good results.


Border controls and (im)mobilities: experiences from a public transport node

Vanessa Stjernborg, Mobilities, June 2024

Elbussar ur ett stadsplaneringsperspektiv

Vendela Åslund och Fredrik Pettersson-Löfstedt, K2 Working Paper 2024:3

Dwell time delays for commuter trains – An analysis of the influence of passengers on dwell time delays

Ruben Alaric Kuipers, Doctoral thesis, Lund University, 2024

Planeringsverktyg för Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) i Sverige

Jakob Allansson, Joel Hansson och Fredrik Pettersson-Löfstedt, K2 Outreach 2024:2

Train stations’ impact on housing prices: Direct and indirect effects

Alexandra Rojas, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, March 2024

How accessibility to schools is not (just) a transport problem: the case of public school choice in the city of Malmö, Sweden

Aaron Nichols & Jean Ryan, European Transport Research, November 2023

Delivering Transit Oriented Development (TOD) in low to medium density contexts. Actor relationships and market conditions in smaller Swedish cities

Robert Hrelja & Tom Rye, International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, November 2023

Collaborative challenges and barriers when planning and implementing Bus Rapid Transit (BRT): Lessons from Swedish BRT projects

Jakob Allansson, Fredrik Pettersson-Löfstedt & Robert Hrelja, Urban, Planning and Transport Research, Augusti 2023

Rationales for transitioning to electric buses in Swedish public transport

Vendela Åslund & Fredrik Pettersson-Löfstedt, Research in Transportation Economics, September 2023

Kombinerad mobilitet mellan cykel och kollektivtrafik (2)

Jens Alm, Karin Thoresson och Till Koglin, K2 Working Paper 2023:4

Sustainability in practice: A governmentality study about transit‐oriented development in rural areas

Freja Lina Huhle, master thesis, Malmö University, 2021

Guidelines för attraktiv regional busstrafik - Regional BRT

K2 broschyr, 2016.

Developing a regional superbus concept – Collaboration challenges

Fredrik Pettersson, Case Studies on Transport Policy, Available online 31 January 2018

Exploring Space Syntax Integration at Public Transport Hubs and Public Squares Using Drone Footage

Carl Johnsson & Rosalia Camporeale, applied sciences, 2022

Future Public Mobility - The next step for sustainable travel

Rådslaget, 2022.

Electric buses in England and Sweden – Overcoming barriers to introduction

Malin Aldenius, Caroline Mullen & Fredrik Pettersson-Löfstedt. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 2022.

Risk and Approaches to Risk-Taking in Testbed Planning

Lina Berglund-Snodgrass, Planning Practice & Research 2021

Planning for Bus Priority

Claus H.Sørensen, Fredrik Pettersson, Joel Hansson, International Encyclopedia of Transportation, 2021, Pages 254-260

Decomposing cycling potentials employing the motility framework

Zahra Hamidi, Journal of Transport Geography, February 2021

Critical challenges in implementing sustainable transport policy in Stockholm and Gothenburg

Fredrik Pettersson, Vanessa Stjernborg, Carey Curtis, Cities, June 2021

Governance reaction to the emerging megacity shrinkage in Tokyo: The case of the Tsukuba express transit-suburban region

Eigo Tateichi, Kyoko Takahashi, Taku Nakano, Cities, February 2021

Discrete Event Simulation of Bus Terminals: A Modular Approach with a High Spatial Resolution

Therese Lindberg, Journal of Advanced Transportation, January 2021

Policy instruments for a more transport efficient society: A pre-study comparing the cases of California and Sweden

Chunli Zhao, Jean Ryan and Anders Wretstrand, K2 Working paper 2021:2

COVID-19 and Public Transport

Chiara Vitrano, K2 Working paper 2021:1

Transit oriented development (TOD) - a literature review

Robert Hrelja, Lina Olsson, Fredrik Pettersson-Löfstedt and Tom Rye, K2 Research 2020:2, December 2020

Improving Coherence in a Cross-Border Public Transport System: Lessons from the Greater Copenhagen Region

Jean Ryan and Anders Wretstrand, Sustainability, August 2020

Mobility as a service: moving in the de-synchronized city

Chiara Vitrano and Matteo Colleoni, chapter in Handbook of Urban Mobilities, June 2020

A Simulation Model of Local Public Transport Access at a Railway Station

Therese Lindberg, Anders Peterson, Andreas Tapani. 2017.

Same questions, different answers? A hierarchical comparison of cyclists’ perceptions of comfort: in-traffic vs. online approach

Kazemzadeh K, Camporeale R, D'Agostino C, Laureshyn A and Lena W H, Transportation Letters, March 2020

Conceptualizing Testbed Planning: Urban Planning in the Intersection between Experimental and Public Sector Logics

Lina Berglund-Snodgrass and Dalia Mukhtar-Landgren, Urban Planning, March 2020

The city that the metro system built: Urban transformations and modalities of integrated planning in Stockholm

Alexander Paulsson, Urban Studies, January 2020

How to create efficient public transport systems? A systematic review of critical problems and approaches for addressing the problems

Hrelja, R., Khan, J. & Pettersson, F. Transport Policy, October 2019

Why do cities invest in bus priority measures? Policy, polity, and politics in Stockholm and Copenhagen

Fredrik Pettersson and Claus Hedegaard Sørensen, Transport Policy, October 2019

Cars. Problematisations, measures and blind spots in local transport and land use policy

Robert Hrelja, Land Use Policy, vol. 87

Governing Mobility-as-a-Service: Insights from Sweden and Finland

Göran Smith et al, book chapter in The Governance of Smart Transportation Systems, 2019

An urban bikeway network design model for inclusive and equitable transport policies

Rosalia Camporeale et al, Transportation Research Procedia, Vol 27, 2019

Integrating Gender into Transport Planning

Autors: Christina Scholten et al, Springer 2019

How to create functioning collaboration in theory and in practice – practical experiences of collaboration when planning public transport systems

Fredrik Pettersson & Robert Hrelja, International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, published online 11 Oct 2018.

Learning through collaboration in the Swedish public transport sector? Co-production through guidelines and living labs

Pettersson, Westerdahl, Hansson. Research in Transportation Economics. Available online 20 July 2018

Developing a regional superbus concept – Collaboration challenges

Fredrik Pettersson, Case Studies on Transport Policy, Available online 31 January 2018

The Qualities Needed for a Successful Collaboration: A Contribution to the Conceptual Understanding of Collaboration for Efficient Public Transport

Hrelja, Pettersson, Westerdahl, Sustainability 2016, 8, 542.

Research projects

Conflicted Streets – Navigating conflicts over streets and urban space in the transition to the 15mC

Healthy Streets: Redefining the role of a transport authority to create an active city

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Access Sweden

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Förstudie av framgångsfaktorer och fallgropar för införande av spridda skolstartstider

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Translating innovation into everyday practices – organizational action and adaptations in the development of MaaS

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Mats Fred

“Lively” and “pleasant” waiting spaces: quality criteria for attractive bus stations and bus stops

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Att samverka eller inte – gränser för samverkan i kollektivtrafiken

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Capacities for Resilient and Inclusive Urban Public Transport Infrastructure and Built Environment (CARIN-PT)

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Is shared micromobility part of public transport’s future? Identifying the purpose, motivations, and substitution effect of shared e-bike and shared e-scooter use

COCOMO – COmpeting and COmplementary MObility solutions in urban contexts

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Politicians, citizen participation and the implementation of contentious measures for sustainable transport (TRANSPOL)

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Tom Rye

A decision support framework for high capacity public transport

Att förstå mobilitetsmönster i tio svenska regioner

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Capturing the impacts of changes in public transport accessibility

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Karin Thoresson

Eplusbus - changeover to electric buses in Swedish public transport

Knowledge base for better collaboration in planning and implementation of Swedish BRT

Micro-level evaluation of bus stop performance using automated analysis of aerial video

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Aliaksei Laureshyn

Transit Oriented Development (TOD)

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Sustainable Mobility in Five Smaller Swedish Cities

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