Public transport for all

Public transport's contribution to, and impact on, accessibility, democratic processes, inclusion and exclusion.

Public transport for all

bild kollektivtrafik för alla

Public transport investments can play an important role in social and economic inclusion in cities and their surroundings. Urbanization, an ageing population and migration represent major challenges, not least in terms of how society's resources are made available through the transport system. The design and availability of public transport play an important role with respect to this challenge, for the individual and for different social groups. Within the cities, the question is how the requirements of companies and enterprises for establishment locations, demand for centralised housing and proximity to high-quality public transport can be balanced against the needs of other groups for accessibility in ways that create well-being and quality of life for all residents.

Previous urban planning, with the ideal of functional division, has contributed to social exclusion in some cases. In large cities, therefore, there are problems with socially segregated environments, with residents who cannot afford a car and where access to public transport is therefore essential. At the same time, public transport does not always satisfy the needs of these areas, where the environment in and around public transport is perceived as unsafe or transport is perceived as too expensive.


Overall research issues
A public transport system suitable for everyone requires knowledge on how the accessibility, mobility and quality of life of different individuals and groups are impacted by the public transport system. A society that satisfies all its citizens' needs and ensures that all citizens can have influence, imposes demands on planning processes with democratic participation, and pays attention to which groups in society (based on e.g. age, income, ethnicity, disability, type of residence) benefit from new public transport solutions and mobility services. The transport system, including public transport, plays an important role with respect to the ambitions to reduce social gaps and improve economic development, job creation and housing supply. The following research issues are prioritised in the research area:

  • Which groups in society are benefited or disadvantaged by public transport investments, changed services and pricing, and in what way the public transport system can support more equal and egalitarian access to society's resources?
  • What account do authorities take of citizens’ different needs and perceptions when designing public transport, e.g. children, people with disabilities and different socio-economic groups?
  • How, and with what results, does collaboration between public transport actors and residents, including new, digital methods for dialogue and feedback  increase the participation of different groups in planning and decision-making?
  • How is public transport planned and designed so that it is, and is perceived to be, safe and secure, for both passengers and employees? How can it be designed to minimise noise and barrier effects?


Expected results
The research is expected to contribute to an increased understanding of public transport as a means of increasing social sustainability. The special needs of different groups in public transport are made visible, and concepts such as social benefit, quality of life, health and accessibility are developed in relation to public transport. In regard to public transport actors, such as regional public transport authorities and municipalities, the research will lead to an increased understanding of how to better include different groups in the planning process. The research also contributes to an increased understanding of how public transport, in combination with new mobility solutions, can be designed to offer solutions to those who currently have limited mobility.

Publications

Railway network design and regional labour markets in Sweden

Erik Johansson, Rosalia Camporeale and Carl-William Palmqvist, Research in Transportation Economics Volume 83, November 2020

A Piece of the Puzzle: Essays on Accessibility, Transport Infrastructure and Distribution

Anders Bondemark, doctoral thesis, Lund University, May 2021

What are we missing when we measure accessibility? Comparing calculated and self-reported accounts among older people

Jean Ryan and Rafael Pereira, Journal of Transport Geography, May 2021

Justice in Regional Transport Planning through the Lens of Iris Marion Young

Chiara Vitrano and Christina Lindkvist, Planning, practice and research, January 2021

COVID-19 and Public Transport

Chiara Vitrano, K2 Working paper 2021:1

Is it expensive to be poor? Public transport in Sweden

Anders Bondemark, Henrik Andersson, Anders Wretstrand and Karin Brundell-Freij, Transportation October 2020

Does context matter? Older adults’ safety perceptions of neighborhood environments in Sweden

Vanessa Stjernborg and Roya Bamzar, bookchapter in Crime and Fear in Public Places - Towards Safe, Inclusive and Sustainable Cities, July 2020

Public transport and social justice in Malmö

Anders Melin, K2 Research 2020:1, June 2020

Access to public mobility services and health in old age: a cross-sectional study in three Swedish cities

Carlos Chiatti, Yngve Westerlund, Agneta Ståhl. Journal of Transport and Health, Vol. 7, 2018

Bus Stops and Violence, Are Risky Places Really Risky?

Manne Gerell. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 24. 2018.

How to Apply Gender Equality Goals in Transport and Infrastructure Planning

Lena Levin and Charlotta Faith-Ell, Integrating Gender into Transport Planning, February 2019

Examining the Process of Modal Choice for Everyday Travel Among Older People

Jean Ryan, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, January 2020

Accessibility for All in Public Transport and the Overlooked (Social) Dimension—A Case Study of Stockholm

Vanessa Stjernborg, Sustainability, September 2019

How to Integrate Gender Equality in the Future of “Smart” Mobility: A Matter for a Changing Planning Practice

Lena Levin, HCII: International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction July 2019

Disparities in mobility among older people: Findings from a capability-based travel survey

Jean Ryan, Anders Wretstrand and Steven M Schmidt, July 2019

Rischi di segregazione temporale nella città poliritmica: il caso della mobilità notturna delle donne tra nuove esigenze di spostamento e percezione della sicurezza

Chiara Vitrano, Monica Ferrario and Matteo Colleoni, Bolletino della societa geografica Italiana, July 2017

Evaluation of free public transport for older people in Sweden

Tania Dukic Willstrand, Per Henriksson, Helena Svensson and Lena Levin, Proceedings of the 6th Humanist Conference, The Hague, Netherlands, 13-14 June 2018

Swedish and Scottish National Transport Policy and Spend: A Social Equity Analysis

Tom Rye and Anders Wretstrand 29 March 2019

An urban bikeway network design model for inclusive and equitable transport policies

Rosalia Camporeale et al, Transportation Research Procedia, Vol 27, 2019

How May Public Transport Influence the Practice of Everyday Life among Younger and Older People and How May Their Practices Influence Public Transport?

Lena Levin in Social Sciences vol. 8 issue 3, March 2019

Integrating Gender into Transport Planning

Autors: Christina Scholten et al, Springer 2019

What’s mode got to do with it? Exploring the links between public transport and car access and opportunities for everyday activities among older people

Jean Ryan, K2, Lund University & Anders Wretstrand, Lund University. January 2019

Research projects

COCOMO – COmpeting and COmplementary MObility solutions in urban contexts

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Space-Time Use and Temporal Well-being of On-board Public Transport Workers

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ACCESS: New mobility for equity in public transport

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Bus stops and bus shelters in the production of public space and mobility

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Capturing the impacts of changes in public transport accessibility

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Micro-level evaluation of bus stop performance using automated analysis of aerial video

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Aliaksei Laureshyn

Railway network design and regional labour markets in Sweden

Understanding Mobility Patterns in Ten Swedish Urban Regions

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Public Transport, Space-time Accessibility, and Social Equity.

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K2 and Malmö University